Countries - Office of the Historian
The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all U.N. .. all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies. Uzbekistan, , See United States–Uzbekistan relations. Bilateral relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan with American countries . In the Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has opened in Tashkent. Uzbek–American relations formally began when the United States recognized the independence of Uzbekistan on December 25, , and opened an.
This has added impetus to the heartening signs of positive political dynamics and a newfound drive for regional cooperation in Central Asia. Even so, any internal reforms can be self-defeating in the event of serious external impediments.
- United States–Uzbekistan relations
- U.S. Department of State
- Foreign relations of Uzbekistan
Even though close ties with Moscow and Beijing are a given as a result of geographical proximity, Washington remains a global leader that Tashkent seeks to engage, and a natural ally to any country undergoing fundamental reforms. This explains the significance of the strong support the U. The implementation of the agreements signed in Washington will create a solid foundation for the development of new opportunities to improve Uzbek-American cooperation in trade, investment and economic activity.
As the holder of significant advantages in innovation and high technology, the U. Similarly, the commercial contracts and agreements signed during the visit also sends a clear signal to business circles in other countries regarding the long-term stability of the Uzbek market. The engagement of key U. Uzbekistan has always stood out for the pragmatism and results-oriented nature of its foreign policy, based on Foreign Policy Concept that emphasizes respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity; non-interference in internal affairs; the peaceful settlement of disagreements; and a commitment to universally accepted international norms and principles.
On this basis, Uzbekistan is effectively establishing relations based on mutual respect across the globe and with leading international and regional organizations.
Foreign relations of Uzbekistan - Wikipedia
However, the Bilateral Investment Treaty will be unlikely to enter into force until Uzbekistan embarks on economic reform.
The government is taking some modest steps to reduce the bureaucratic restraints on the nascent private sector. Assistance[ edit ] The United States' humanitarian and technical assistance to Uzbekistan has decreased markedly sinceboth as a result of government actions against U. Government restrictions on aid. Since its independence, the U. Government continues to support educational and professional exchanges and other programs that offer Uzbeks the opportunity to study in the United States and to establish professional contacts with their American counterparts.
The Departments of State and Defense provide technical assistance in the form of equipment and training to enhance Uzbekistan's control over its borders and its capabilities to interdict the illicit movement of narcotics, people, and goods, including potential weapons of mass destruction-related items. These programs were designed to promote market reform and to establish a foundation for an open, prosperous, democratic society. Starting inthe Secretary of State has been unable to certify that Uzbekistan has met its obligations under the bilateral Strategic Framework Agreement.
As a result, U. Embassy of Uzbekistan in Washington, D.
Foreign relations of the United States
However, after the supply routes through Pakistan were interrupted inthe ban on military assistance to Uzbekistan was pragmatically lifted. Saudi Arabia and Iran specifically saw Central Asia as a region of zero-sum game.
Even the Islamic Development Bank has moved away from an emphasis on investing in spreading Islamic education to giving aid for the building and setting up of secular academic institutions in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan and the rest of Central Asia stand at the crossroads of the historic Silk Road and have great economic and market potential.
It is important for Uzbekistan to have a diversified economy and revive its position in the global market as a link between Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The revival of old trade links exemplified by a once thriving Silk Route should be of key importance to not only Uzbekistan and the countries in Central Asia but also to Saudi Arabia and the GCC along with Iran, Turkey, Russia and China to name just some of the countries that will benefit from this.
Uzbekistan also has a highly skilled and educated population as a result of being the centre for Islamic education through the ages and also because of the Soviet insistence on the provision of education throughout the Soviet Union. The last few years have seen a desire by the GCC countries have made attempts to diversify their economies from being entirely oil dependent to include services and other commercial endeavours for a more stable future.
Central Asia and particularly Uzbekistan with its substantial population can serve as a potentially very profitable market for Saudi Arabia. Uzbekistan has been - and can continue to be - a source of skilled labour for the Gulf countries. There is a large young and educated population in Uzbekistan that is now accessible to countries outside the Soviet Union.
Considering historical links between the two countries, the presence of Uzbek communities in Saudi Arabia and economic opportunities, labour migration should continue to prove beneficial to both the Saudis and the Uzbeks. Central Asian countries can look to the countries that make up the GCC to track the development of new economies highly dependent on hydrocarbon reserves. UAE and other Gulf countries are good examples of oil and gas economies that have found a place in the international economy in trade, banking and commerce.
Central Asia like the GCC has a lot of strong regional powers around it. The countries that make up the two regions are small compared to their more powerful neighbours. Both the regions have large reserves of natural resources that can be exploited and that the international community is very interested in tapping into.One Team Production: Uzbekistan - United States
The Central Asian countries can look to the GCC grouping to follow the advantages of cooperating and presenting a collective voice to the international community to boost their position especially in the economic sphere. Central Asia can also look to the GCC to strategise the response to strong Islamic forces in their respective countries.
There is also the possibility of tracking the ways in which the 33 Maqsudal Nuri, Central Asia: Disputes centred on issues of water management and shortages are likely scenarios that will have to be dealt with and cooperation between Central Asian countries is going to be the only likely solution. The GCC countries have been able to promote a collective front and cooperate with each other to ensure that all the countries partake in the wealth creation from their natural resources.
There is also room for investment from the bigger and more successful economies in the weaker economies which can be seen in the GCC. As has already been mentioned a country like Uzbekistan has been a hub of academic institutions as far back as the th centuries.
Islamic educational institutions abounded in this region and provided the basis for scientific, literary and religious knowledge for centuries. Central Asia acted as the font and the medium through which knowledge passed unceasingly from Asia to the Middle East and into Europe in the th centuries.
The culture of higher academic institutions continued throughout the Soviet period as well.
As a consequence of the Soviet educational system Uzbekistan and the rest of Central Asia has a highly educated female population.
There is a huge potential for Saudi Arabia to tap into this resource to provide education for women by women teachers and professionals in Saudi Arabia. A Scheme for Transitional States, Tokyo: Akashi Shoten,pp. An Edited Volume to be Published by the Gulf Research Council GRCrelating to desert agriculture and solar energy which are useful and necessary areas of research for both regions. Encouragement of local and regional networks of sustainable development will go a long way in issues regarding environment, water supply and electricity along with wealth creation and human capital development.
Both Uzbekistan and Saudi Arabia are ideally located geographically to make use of renewable energy resources like solar and wind energy which can be used for internal consumption and for export. The high technical achievement in these areas in Uzbekistan brings to the table a huge potential for investment by Saudi Arabia to exploit these technologies.
It is interesting to note that these countries which are primarily seen as oil and gas economies occupy a unique position in harnessing and developing renewable energy resources which can prove to be beneficial not only for themselves but for our climactically challenged world.
In this way there is also scope for moving beyond the rhetoric of only geo-political-speak and areas of sustainable cultural and commercial interaction between the regions.
Along with the opportunity for both the GCC and Central Asia to learn from each other and provide each other space for economic development and commercial success there is also the possibility of competition that may arise in the future as Central Asia is able to tap into its oil reserves. The potential of Central Asia as a future provider to countries like Japan can be seen already.
Japan is also the largest consumer of natural gas and seeks to maintain a steady supply of uranium for non-military nuclear needs. The visit by the Japanese Minister to Central Asia shows that Japan is keen in finding new sources for their oil and gas needs.
In this context it is not difficult to see that Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan which have oil and uranium reserves could in the future become direct competitors to Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain. However, it is essential for Central Asia and the GCC to realise their potential for cooperation rather than conflict and prove that it is beneficial for the development for both regions.
Conclusion There is space for creating affinity and a sense of shared experience for Saudi Arabia and Uzbekistan. To cite another example, the experience of Kazakhstan on the world stage in the last couple of years has been tremendous to follow.
The evolution of the relations between the GCC countries and Central Asian countries necessitate a discussion of the development of the interaction between these two strategically very important regions. As integral parts of the Islamic world and geographical proximity to Iraq and Afghanistan, make their interaction even more important on the global stage. There is an urgent need to steer clear from notions that make countries like those in Central Asia pawns in the international arena.