The Internet Dating Slang Terms You Need To Know - AskMen
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With the directory information stored in memory, multiple accesses may be required to retrieve and update directory state. HitME cache is another capability in the CHA that caches directory information for speeding up cache-to-cache transfer.
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OSB broadcasts snoops when the Intel UPI link is lightly loaded, thus avoiding a directory lookup from memory and reducing memory bandwidth.
Avoiding directory lookup has a direct impact on saving memory bandwidth. Cache Hierarchy Changes Figure In the previous generation the mid-level cache was KB per core and the last level cache was a shared inclusive cache with 2.
In the Intel Xeon processor Scalable family, the cache hierarchy has changed to provide a larger MLC of 1 MB per core and a smaller shared non-inclusive 1. The shift to a non-inclusive cache for the LLC allows for more effective utilization of the overall cache on the chip versus an inclusive cache.
If the core on the Intel Xeon processor Scalable family has a miss on all the levels of the cache, it fetches the line from memory and puts it directly into MLC of the requesting core, rather than putting a copy into both the MLC and LLC as was done on the previous generation.
Due to the non-inclusive nature of LLC, the absence of a cache line in LLC does not indicate that the line is not present in private caches of any of the cores.
Therefore, a snoop filter is used to keep track of the location of cache lines in the L1 or MLC of cores when it is not allocated in the LLC. Even with the changed cache hierarchy in Intel Xeon processor Scalable family, the effective cache available per core is roughly the same as the previous generation for a usage scenario where different applications are running on different cores.
Because of the non-inclusive nature of LLC, the effective cache capacity for an application running on a single core is a combination of MLC cache size and a portion of LLC cache size. For other usage scenarios, such as multithreaded applications running across multiple cores with some shared code and data, or a scenario where only a subset of the cores on the socket are used, the effective cache capacity seen by the applications may seem different than previous-generation CPUs.
In some cases, application developers may need to adapt their code to optimize it with the changed cache hierarchy on the Intel Xeon processor Scalable family of processors.
Page Protection Keys Because of stray writes, memory corruption is an issue with complex multithreaded applications. For example, not every part of the code in a database application needs to have the same level of privilege. The log writer should have write privileges to the log buffer, but it should have only read privileges on other pages. Similarly, in an application with producer and consumer threads for some critical data structures, producer threads can be given additional rights over consumer threads on specific pages.
The page-based memory protection mechanism can be used to harden applications. Protection keys provide a user-level, page-granular way to grant and revoke access permission without changing page tables. Protection keys provide 16 domains for user pages and use bits Each protection domain has two permission bits in a new thread-private register called PKRU. On a memory access, the page table lookup is used to determine the protection domain PKEY of the access, and the corresponding protection domain-specific permission is determined from PKRU register content to see if access and write permission is granted.
An access is allowed only if both protection keys and legacy page permissions allow the access. Protection keys violations are reported as page faults with a new page fault error code bit. Protection keys have no effect on supervisor pages, but supervisor accesses to user pages are subject to the same checks as user accesses. Diagram of memory data access with protection key.
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In order to benefit from protection keys, support is required from the virtual machine manager, OS, and complier. Utilizing this feature does not cause a performance impact because it is an extension of the memory management architecture.
If an iterative write operation does not take into consideration the bounds of the destination, adjacent memory locations may get corrupted. Such unintended modification of adjacent data is referred as a buffer overflow. Buffer overflows have been known to be exploited, causing denial-of-service DoS attacks and system crashes. Similarly, uncontrolled reads could reveal cryptographic keys and passwords. More sinister attacks, which do not immediately draw the attention of the user or system administrator, alter the code execution path such as modifying the return address in the stack frame to execute malicious code or script.
This new hardware technology is supported by the compiler. XU for user pages XS for supervisor pages The CPU selects one or the other based on permission of the guest page and maintains an invariant for every page that does not allow it to be writable and supervisor-executable at the same time.
A benefit of this feature is that a hypervisor can more reliably verify and enforce the integrity of kernel-level code. The AVXDQ instruction group is focused on new additions for benefiting high-performance computing HPC workloads such as oil and gas, seismic modeling, financial services industry, molecular dynamics, ray tracing, double-precision matrix multiplication, fast Fourier transform and convolutions, and RSA cryptography.
AVXVL is not an instruction group but a feature that is associated with vector length orthogonality.
Broadwell, the previous processor generation, has up to two floating point FMAs Fused Multiple Add per core and this has not changed with the Intel Xeon processor Scalable family. However the Intel Xeon processor Scalable family doubles the number of elements that can be processed compared to Broadwell as the FMAs on the Intel Xeon processor Scalable family of processors have been expanded from bits to bits.
Intel AVX instructions offer the highest degree of support to software developers by including an unprecedented level of richness in the design of the instructions.
The following sections cover some of the details of the new features of Intel AVX Some of these instructions provide new functionality such as the conversion of floating point numbers to bit integers.
Other instructions promote existing instructions such as with the vxorps instruction to use bit registers.
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The original Intel AVX Foundation instructions supported such masking with vector element sizes of 32 or 64 bits, because a bit vector register could hold at most 16 bit elements, so a write mask size of 16 bits was sufficient.
The use of Vector Length Extensions allows the capabilities of EVEX encodings, including the use of mask registers and access to registers In Intel AVX this feature has been greatly expanded with eight new opmask registers used for conditional execution and efficient merging of destination operands. The width of each opmask register is bits, and they are identified as k0—k7. Seven of the eight opmask registers k1—k7 can be used in conjunction with EVEX-encoded Intel AVX Foundation Instructions to provide conditional processing, such as with vectorized remainders that only partially fill the register.
Example of opmask register k1. Embedded Rounding Embedded Rounding provides additional support for math calculations by allowing the floating point rounding mode to be explicitly specified for an individual operation, without having to modify the rounding controls in the MXCSR control register. In previous SIMD instruction extensions, rounding control is generally specified in the MXCSR control register, with a handful of instructions providing per-instruction rounding override via encoding fields within the imm8 operand.
Intel AVX offers a more flexible encoding attribute to override MXCSR-based rounding control for floating-pointing instruction with rounding semantic. Static rounding also implies exception suppression SAE as if all floating point exceptions are disabled, and no status flags are set.
Static rounding enables better accuracy control in intermediate steps for division and square root operations for extra precision, while the default MXCSR rounding mode is used in the last step. It can also help in cases where precision is needed the least significant bit such as in range reduction for trigonometric functions.
Embedded Broadcast Embedded broadcast provides a bit-field to encode data broadcast for some load-op instructions such as instructions that load data from memory and perform some computational or data movement operation. A source element from memory can be broadcasted repeated across all elements of the effective source operand, without requiring an extra instruction.
This is useful when we want to reuse the same scalar operand for all operations in a vector instruction. Embedded broadcast is only enabled on instructions with an element size of 32 or 64 bits and not on byte and word instructions. Quadword Integer Arithmetic Quadword integer arithmetic removes the need for expensive software emulation sequences.
This is not, however, a requirement of conformance: It is required, however, that it in fact be possible for the user to disable the optional behavior. Nothing in this specification constrains the manner in which processors allow users to control user options.Longest Prefix Match to Control Inbound Traffic - Georgia Tech - Network Implementation
Command-line options, menu choices in a graphical user interface, environment variables, alternative call patterns in an application programming interface, and other mechanisms may all be taken as providing user options. The specific wording follows that of [XML 1. Where these terms appear without special highlighting, they are used in their ordinary senses and do not express conformance requirements. Where these terms appear highlighted within non-normative material e. Structures at the level of its abstract data model.
Readers interested primarily in learning to write schema documents will find it most useful first to read [XML Schema: These can be used to assess the validity of well-formed element and attribute information items as defined in [XML Infoset]and furthermore to specify additional information about those items and their descendants. The input information set is also augmented with information about the validity of the item, or about other properties described in this specification.
The mechanisms by which processors provide such access to the PSVI are neither defined nor constrained by this specification.
Throughout this specification, [Definition: As just defined, validation produces not a binary result, but a ternary one: At AS1's router, it will either be dropped or a destination unreachable ICMP message will be sent back, depending on the configuration of AS1's routers. If AS1 later decides to drop the route AS2 will see the three routes, and depending on the routing policy of AS2, it will store a copy of the three routes, or aggregate the prefix's Inonly AS numbers were still available, and projections  were envisioning a complete depletion of available AS numbers in September Load balancing[ edit ] Another factor causing this growth of the routing table is the need for load balancing of multi-homed networks.
It is not a trivial task to balance the inbound traffic to a multi-homed network across its multiple inbound paths, due to limitation of the BGP route selection process. For a multi-homed network, if it announces the same network blocks across all of its BGP peers, the result may be that one or several of its inbound links become congested while the other links remain under-utilized, because external networks all picked that set of congested paths as optimal.
Like most other routing protocols, BGP does not detect congestion. To work around this problem, BGP administrators of that multihomed network may divide a large contiguous IP address block into smaller blocks and tweak the route announcement to make different blocks look optimal on different paths, so that external networks will choose a different path to reach different blocks of that multi-homed network. Such cases will increase the number of routes as seen on the global BGP table.
This technique does not increase the number of routes seen on the global BGP table. This allows for automatic and decentralized routing of traffic across the Internet, but it also leaves the Internet potentially vulnerable to accidental or malicious disruption, known as BGP hijacking.
Due to the extent to which BGP is embedded in the core systems of the Internet, and the number of different networks operated by many different organizations which collectively make up the Internet, correcting this vulnerability such as by introducing the use of cryptographic keys to verify the identity of BGP routers is a technically and economically challenging problem.
This can then be extended further with features like Cisco's dmzlink-bw which enables a ratio of traffic sharing based on bandwidth values configured on individual links. Multiprotocol BGP allows information about the topology of IP multicast-capable routers to be exchanged separately from the topology of normal IPv4 unicast routers.
Thus, it allows a multicast routing topology different from the unicast routing topology. Although MBGP enables the exchange of inter-domain multicast routing information, other protocols such as the Protocol Independent Multicast family are needed to build trees and forward multicast traffic.
Other commercial routers may need a specific software executable image that contains BGP, or a license that enables it. Products marketed as switches may or may not have a size limitation on BGP tables, such as 20, routes, far smaller than a full Internet table plus internal routes.
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These devices, however, may be perfectly reasonable and useful when used for BGP routing of some smaller part of the network, such as a confederation-AS representing one of several smaller enterprises that are linked, by a BGP backbone of backbonesor a small enterprise that announces routes to an ISP but only accepts a default route and perhaps a small number of aggregated routes.
A BGP router used only for a network with a single point of entry to the Internet may have a much smaller routing table size and hence RAM and CPU requirement than a multihomed network.
Even simple multihoming can have modest routing table size. The router may have to keep more than one copy of a route, so it can manage different policies for route advertising and acceptance to a specific neighboring AS. The term view is often used for these different policy relationships on a running router.