Emigration of Iranian Elites to India during the th centuries
Persians are quite distinct and Indians are too. So, it's a pretty old relationship, you could say. How can you differentiate between Persians and Indians?. What is important is that Iranian immigration to India was not a temporary .. confined, perhaps because his relationship with the former emperor was too close. It is difficult to think of Persian as an Indian language today. Yet for hundreds of years, Farsi held sway as a language of administration and high.
Not only were the workers provided for: The same kind of mobility can be shown in case of Persian poets who often held administrative posts at the Mughal court To the Persian speaking notables in Safavid society who knew all that was necessary for court life, it mattered little whether they served the Safavids or some other dynasty in India.
They emigrated easily to the east. Much more complete information will be gained as a result of studying other Mughal sources such as chronicles, tazkiras, documents and biographies.
This however awaits further research and we must remain for the present content with the temporary results mentioned here. Though providing only a general view, the paper does show clearly that the question of the emigration of Iranian elites to India cannot be overemphasized either for Indian or Iranian history. No person of Indian origin is known to have attained high position at the Safavid court. At the political and cultural levels, the stream of people flowed from west to east.
On the other hand, a number of Indian merchants went to Iran in the seventeenth century. Most caravanserais in good locations around the Royal Maydan in Isfahan were occupied by Indian merchants It is said there were more than ten thousand Indians in Isfahan and there existed even a crematory specially reserved for them on the shore of the Zayanda river in the latter half of the seventeenth century A number of Iranian people possessing sophisticated Persian culture emigrated from Iran to India seeking honour and fortune, while many Indian merchants moved from India to Iran looking for economic profit.
At least until the collapse of the Timurids at the beginning of the sixteenth century, Iran and Central Asia regularly had a common political and cultural background. People moved easily from one to the other. It is, however, generally believed that Iranian emigration to Central Asia after the rise of the Safavids was limited to those who were religiously persecuted. If so, the Mughal empire and the Uzbek regime might be thought to have had different attitudes towards immigrants.
This would not just be a question of the attitudes of the two states, for the view of the Iranian people towards the two countries should also be taken into account. What was the reason for this difference?
INDIA xiii. INDO-IRANIAN COMMERCIAL RELATIONS – Encyclopaedia Iranica
Why did Iranian people immigrate to India rather than to Central Asia? These questions remain unanswered.
The actual situation of human interchange between Iran and Central Asia after the sixteenth century needs to be studied in order for these important questions to be clarified It is known that the Mughal dynasty came from Central Asia and there was an influential Turani group a group of people from Central Asia at its court.
However, no serious study has yet been done on the movement of people between India and Central Asia, at least at the political and cultural level Much more work remains to be done. The Mughal Empire, Cambridge,p. Beveridge, revised, annotated and completed by B. There is sometimes mention of more than two persons in the same item. That is why the number of items included in the English translation is different from the number of persons discussed in the present study.
See lists at the end of The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb.
I did not do so here, however, because, although at least one reference is quoted in his huge list of notables in The Apparatus of Empire, it does not mean that one can get access to the exact reference to the place of origin of the notable concerned. We must look elsewhere to confirm the origin of the person concerned.
Due to a lack of time and the inaccessibility of some of the sources, I decided against doing this. Athar Ali regards people receiving over 1 zats as notables, while in the other two-aforementioned studies, people receiving over zats are included in this category.
Bahram Mirza, brother of Shah Tahmasp, living in the Qandahar region. Although it is obvious that we have to modify this dualistic view to some extent, as being too simple and not precisely reflecting the historical reality, I think such a classification still has some meaning. For a recent study on the Tajiks and the Turks, see for exemple, J. Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial relations, c. There is an interesting argument on the question of the Tajiks and the Turks at the Mughal court in the recent study of Stephen Blake on Shahjahanabad.
Concerning the respect expressed by Mongol Ilkhans to sayyids, see Lambton, Continuity and Change, p. Quiring-Zoche, Isfahan im Jahrhundert, Freiburg,p.
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- Indo-Persian culture
The influence of Persian language moreover may be seen in the considerable proportion of loanwords absorbed into the vernaculars of the north and north-west of the Indian subcontinent including PunjabiGujaratiUrduHindiKashmiri and Pashto.
History[ edit ] With the presence of Muslim culture in the region in the Ghaznavid periodLahore and Uch were established as centers of Persian literature. The earliest of the "great" Indo-Persian poets was Amir Khusrow d. Delhi sultanate and the Mughal era[ edit ] See also: Indo-Persian culture and to varying degrees also Turkic culture flourished side-by-side during the period of the Delhi Sultanate — The invasion of Babur inthe end of the Delhi Sultanate, and the establishment of what would become the Mughal Empire would usher the golden age of Indo-Persian culture with particular reference to the art and architecture of the Mughal era.
The Mughal Era to the British Raj: Persian persisted as the language of the Mughals up to and including the year which marked the death of the Emperor Aurangzebgenerally considered the last of the "Great Mughals". Thereafter, with the decline of the Mughal empire, the invasion of Delhi by Nader Shah and the gradual growth initially of the Hindu Marathas  and later the European power within the Indian subcontinent, Persian or Persian culture commenced a period of decline although it nevertheless enjoyed patronage and may even have flourished within the many regional empires or kingdoms of the Indian subcontinent including that of the Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh r.
Persian as a language of governance and education was abolished in by the British and the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafareven if his rule was purely symbolic or ceremonial, was overthrown in by the British.
The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan, and latterly fulfilled a valuable role as transmitters of this heritage to the newly conquered lands of northern India, laying the foundations for the essentially Persian culture which was to prevail in Muslim India until the 19th century