Prejudice and Stereotyping - Psychology - Oxford Bibliographies
at a disadvantage or treating them unfairly as a result of their group membership. More specifically, "personal discrimination" refers to acts of discrimination Prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination often go hand-in- hand, but it is also for this difference in hiring, the pattern may represent a form of institutionalized sex. Review the causes of discrimination and the ways that we can reduce it. and cognition—apply to the study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and Figure Relationships among social groups are influenced by the ABCs of . Overgeneralized beliefs (stereotypes), frequently accompanied by negative attitudes (prejudice), can give rise to behavior that is unfair, belittling, or otherwise.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 5— Automatic category activation and social behaviour: The moderating role of prejudiced beliefs. Social Cognition, 21 3— Even groups who typically enjoy advantaged social status can be made to experience stereotype threat.
Necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 29— Battling doubt by avoiding practice: The effects of stereotype threat on self-handicapping in White athletes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 12— Stereotype threat is created in situations that pose a significant threat to self-concern, such that our perceptions of ourselves as important, valuable, and capable individuals are threatened.
In these situations, there is a discrepancy between our positive concept of our skills and abilities and the negative stereotypes suggesting poor performance. When our stereotypes lead us to be believe that we are likely to perform poorly on a task, we experience a feeling of unease and status threat.
Research has found that stereotype threat is caused by both cognitive and affective factors. On the cognitive side, individuals who are experiencing stereotype threat show an impairment in cognitive processing that is caused by increased vigilance toward the environment and attempts to suppress their stereotypical thoughts. An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance.
Psychological Review, 2— Stereotype threat is not, however, absolute—we can get past it if we try. What is important is to reduce the self-concern that is engaged when we consider the relevant negative stereotypes. Rising to the threat: Reducing stereotype threat by reframing the threat as a challenge.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 1— Psychological defense in anticipation of anxiety: Eliminating the potential for anxiety eliminates the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense.
Psychological Science, 14 5—; McIntyre, R. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39 183— Knowing is half the battle: Psychological Science, 16 3— Key Takeaways Beliefs about the characteristics of the groups and the members of those groups are known as stereotypes. Prejudice refers to an unjustifiable negative attitude toward an outgroup. Stereotypes and prejudice may create discrimination. Stereotyping and prejudice begin from social categorization—the natural cognitive process by which we place individuals into social groups.
Social categorization influences our perceptions of groups—for instance, the perception of outgroup homogeneity. Once our stereotypes and prejudices become established, they are difficult to change and may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies, such that our expectations about the group members make the stereotypes come true.
Stereotypes may influence our performance on important tasks through stereotype threat. Exercises and Critical Thinking Look again at the pictures in Figure What are your stereotypes and prejudices about them?
Do you think your stereotypes are accurate? On which if any social categories do you categorize others? Is your behavior fair or unfair to the people you are categorizing? Think of a task that one of the social groups to which you belong is considered to be particularly good or poor at. Do you think the cultural stereotypes about your group have ever influenced your performance on a task? Outline the personality and cultural variables that influence ingroup favoritism.
Stereotypes, Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination, Oh My!
We have now seen that social categorization occurs whenever we think about others in terms of their category memberships rather than on the basis of other, more personal information about the individual. And we have seen that social categorization can have a variety of negative consequences for the people who are the targets of our stereotypes.
Stereotyping and evaluation in implicit race bias: Evidence for independent constructs and unique effects on behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, — An evolutionary perspective on social identity: Psychology Press; Navarrete, C. Anxiety and intergroup bias: Terror management or coalitional psychology? The evolution of intergroup bias: Perceptions and attitudes in rhesus macaques.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3— Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. Evolutionary approaches to group dynamics: Neurocognitive underpinnings of face perception: Further evidence of distinct person and group perception processes.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 1— The problem is that these naturally occurring tendencies may lead us to prefer people who are like us, and in some cases even to unfairly reject people from outgroups. Social categorization and intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1, — He found that just dividing people into arbitrary groups produces ingroup favoritism The tendency to respond more positively to our ingroups than we do to outgroups. Supposedly on the basis of their preferences for each painting, the students were divided into two groups they were called the X group and the Y group.
Each boy was told which group he had been assigned to and that different boys were assigned to different groups. But none of them were told the group memberships of any of the other boys. The boys were then given a chance to allocate points to other boys in their own group and to boys in the other group but never to themselves using a series of payoff matrices, such as those shown in Figure The charts divided a given number of rewards between two boys, and the boys thought that the rewards would be used to determine how much each boy would be paid for his participation.
Tajfel then examined the goals that the boys used when they divided up the points. However, fairness was not the predominant approach when dividing points between ingroup and outgroup. In this case, rather than exhibiting fairness, the boys displayed ingroup favoritism, such that they gave more points to other members of their own group in relationship to boys in the other group. For instance, the boys might assign 8 points to the ingroup boy and only 3 points to the outgroup boy, even though the matrix also contained a choice in which they could give the ingroup and the outgroup boys 13 points each.
In short, the boys preferred to maximize the gains of the other boys in their own group in comparison with the boys in the outgroup, even if doing so meant giving their own group members fewer points than they could otherwise have received.
Social categorization and similarity in intergroup behavior. Social categorization and discriminatory behavior: Extinguishing the minimal intergroup discrimination effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39 5— Groups exist simply because individuals perceive those groups as existing.
Even in a case where there really is no group at least no meaningful group in any real sensewe still perceive groups and still demonstrate ingroup favoritism.
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
The formation of in-group favoritism and out-group prejudice in young children: Are they distinct attitudes? Developmental Psychology, 39 148—60; Aboud, F. Developmental and socialization influences on intergroup bias. Young children show greater liking for peers of their own sex and race and typically play with same-sex others after the age of 3. And there is a norm that we should favor our ingroups: On the spontaneous preference for ingroup members who maximize ingroup positive distinctiveness.
European Journal of Social Psychology, 40 6— Social Development, 13 1— A comparison of minimal group induction procedures. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14 181— A review of the literature on intergroup causal attribution.Prejudice, Stereotypes, & Discrimination (1 of 2)
European Journal of Social Psychology, 20 4— Intergroup contact and pluralistic ignorance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88 191— Guilford Press; Maass, A. Evidence for in-group-protective motivation. The linguistic intergroup bias as an implicit indicator of prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33 5— People also make trait attributions in ways that benefit their ingroups, just as they make trait attributions that benefit themselves.
This general tendency, known as the ultimate attribution error The tendency for competing groups to make causal attributions that maintain ingroup favoritism.
When an ingroup member engages in a positive behavior, we tend to see it as a stable internal characteristic of the group as a whole. How can these social ills be reduced? By the end of the course students should, from a social psychological perspective, understand: Class meetings will involve lecture, films, and discussion. It is essential that you read assigned material before each class meeting and come to class prepared for discussion. You will be graded on class participation.
Attendance is important, especially in a condensed three week session. Each class meeting is the equivalent of a week of meetings during a regular semester.
Attendance will be taken. Prejudice and stereotyping are generally considered to be the product of adaptive processes that simplify an otherwise complex world so that people can devote more cognitive resources to other tasks. However, despite any cognitively adaptive function they may serve, using these mental shortcuts when making decisions about other individuals can have serious negative ramifications. The horrible mistreatment of particular groups of people in recent history, such as that of Jews, African Americans, women, and homosexuals, has been the major impetus for the study of prejudice and stereotyping.
Thus, the original conceptions and experiments were concerned almost entirely with conscious, negative attitudes and explicitly discriminatory actions. However, as the social acceptability of prejudice and stereotypes has changed, the manifestations of prejudice and stereotypes have also changed. In response to these changes, and given that people who reject prejudice and stereotyping can still unwittingly internalize stereotypic representations, the study of prejudice and stereotyping has recently moved to include beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that could be considered positive and not obviously or overtly prejudiced.
Importantly, even when prejudice and stereotypes are ostensibly positive e.
Because of these new conceptions of bias, there have also been methodological adaptations in the study of prejudice and stereotyping that move beyond the conscious attitudes and behaviors of individuals to measure their implicit prejudice and stereotypes as well. This article gives a quick tour through the social psychological study of prejudice and stereotyping to inform the reader about its theoretical background, measurement, and interventions aimed to reduce prejudice.