Although the relationship between grassland productivity and soil water status has been extensively researched, the responses of plant growth. Plant growth and photosynthesis is strongly influenced by blue or red light However, there was no linear relationship between leaf soluble. The relationships of photosynthetic characteristics to the competitive interactions of a C3 plant, Chenopodium album, and a C4 plant, Amaranthis retroflexus.
Photosynthesis Respiration and Plant Growth
Respiration produces a great deal of energy that is needed by plants to grow and stay healthy. Excess sugars produced by photosynthesis that are not needed for respiration and growth are stored as starch which can then be converted back to sugars when needed during periods of low light.
Although light is an important factor for maximizing photosynthesis and in turn plant growth, all other growth factors both nutritional and environmental play a process and the promotion of optimum plant growth. Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis It is important to understand and attempt to control as many factors as possible that may either increase or decrease photosynthetic processes in plants intended for harvest.Plant Growth: Auxins and Gibberellins - Biology for All - FuseSchool
In most instances it is the concentration of growth factors that either decrease or increase photosynthesis. Light Intensity The intensity of light is important for maximizing the rate of photosynthesis.
The optimal light level for photosynthesis is 10, lux. Lux is a unit for measuring light intensity. Low light intensity lowers the rate of photosynthesis. However, after reaching an intensity of 10, lux, there is no increase in the rate.
For indoor and greenhouse growing a light meter should be used to determine how much light is reaching the plants. Useful light is decreased exponentially for each unit that artificial light is moved away from plants, but the heat generated by various types of lighting necessitate moving the lights a sufficient distance from the plants.
Proper ventilation and use of fans can decrease the space needed between the plants and various types of lighting equipment. Lights should always be installed with hanging mounts and other forms of adjustable mounts to allow the lights to easily be moved up as plants grow.
Horizontal lights installed on the sides of plants can also be used to improve the light intensity reaching the lower branches of the plants. Light movers use small motors and tracks to move light above plants. This helps with even light coverage because it mimics the movement of the sun over the planets. It can also allow more plants to receive light from a given number and intensity of lights. Plants primarily use light from the red and blue wavelengths so good horticultural lights are designed to provide mostly light from these wavelengths in addition to full spectrum lighting.
Get the Best Seeds, Clones or Starter Plants There are factors other than the intensity and wavelength of the light that reaches the plants that affect the rate of photosynthesis. These can be manipulated by the grower to achieve maximum speed of growth and larger yields in a shorter period of time. Although photosynthesis can be improved by maximizing growth factors, genetics plays a major role in the plants programmed ability to conduct photosynthesis.
The majority of a pants photosynthesis abilities and vigor are coded in seeds genetics, so it is important to start with the best seeds available. Humidity Some areas have better natural humidity for growing specific plants than others. Humidity may also vary from season to season, and it can be changed for better or worse by indoor home climate control devises.
Plants need the highest humidity during germination. This can be facilitated through proper seed starting techniques. Humidity below this level can result in decreased photosynthesis as plants develop thin leaves and close stomas to try to prevent excess loss of water through respiration and evaporation. Hygrometers should be used to measure relative humidity and various low tech and high tech means are available to make adjustments for optimal photosynthesis and plant growth.
Temperature If temperatures are too high or too low, enzymes stop working. Since both the stages of photosynthesis require enzyme activity, temperature has an affect on the rate of photosynthesis and corresponding plant growth.
Select plants that are compatible with temperatures in the environment you can provide. Carbon Dioxide As discussed above, carbon dioxide is a gas that is essential for the light reactions in all plants that carry on photosynthesis. In the atmosphere, the concentration of carbon dioxide ranges from. However, it has been determined that 0. Therefore, supplementing CO2 to the existing amount in the air will speed up photosynthesis and therefore, growth will occur faster.
Experimentation has also shown that CO2 can help plants tolerate higher temperatures with little affect on the rate of photosynthesis. Indoor and greenhouse growing provides for advantages in more easily manipulating growth factors and CO2 concentration is no exception. This is achieved in the greenhouses and other enclosed growing chambers by installing gas burners which liberate carbon dioxide as the gas burns.
Crops grown under these conditions are found to be bigger and better-yielding than their counterparts growing in natural conditions. Water Although only a small portion of water absorbed by the plant is used in photosynthesis, a shortage of water does affect the rate photosynthesis occurs.
Even a slight deficiency of water results in significant reduction in the crop yield. The lack of water not only limits the amount of water, but also the quantity of carbon dioxide available for photosynthesis.
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Are plant growth and photosynthesis limited by pre-drought following rewatering in grass?
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a succulent, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism CAM plant. Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics were studied when M. Photosynthetic light use efficiency measured by photochemical quenching, non-photochemical quenching, and electron transport rate, demonstrated that plants grown under high blue-LED utilized more light energy and had more effective heat dissipation mechanism compared to plants grown under 0B or lower blue-LED.
Statistically, there were no differences in photosynthetic O2 evolution rate, light-saturated CO2 assimilation rate Asatand light-saturated stomatal conductance gssat among plants grown under different combined red- and blue-LEDs but they were significantly higher than those of 0B plants. No statistically differences in total reduced nitrogen content were found among all plants. For the total soluble protein, all plants grown under different combined red- and blue-LEDs had similar values but they were significantly higher than that of plants grown under 0B condition.
However, plants grown under higher blue-LEDs had significant higher ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase Rubisco protein than those plants grown under lower blue-LED. Results of this study suggest that compared to red- or blue-LED alone, appropriate combination of red- and blue-LED lighting enhanced plant growth and photosynthetic capacities of M.
Large bladder cells covering the leaf of M. When grown under unstressed conditions, stomata of C3 and C4 plants open in the light and close in darkness. However, for facultative CAM plants, their stomata shift from diurnal to nocturnal opening during stress-induced shifts from C3 to CAM metabolism Osmond, The edible leaves of the M.
Photosynthesis Respiration and Plant Growth - Garden & Greenhouse
The growth of these halophytic plants were mostly studied in different treatments of soil Winter and Holtum, To enhance local vegetable production, recently we have successfully grown them in land scarce Singapore using an indoor aeroponic farming system with adequate water supply under light emitting diodes LEDs lighting. However, there is very little work done on its photosynthetic characteristics when M.
Plant growth and photosynthesis is strongly influenced by blue or red light Bula et al. It was observed that lettuce and other dicotyledonous plants developed excessive hypocotyl and stem elongation, leaf extension, and reduced chlorophyll Chl when grown under red-LED as the sole source of irradiation.
The abnormal morphological characteristics were eliminated when red-LED was supplemented with blue light Bula et al. Yield of lettuce, spinach, and radish crops grown under appropriate combination of red and blue light was enhanced compared to red light alone Yorio et al.