government health expenditure on infant and under-5 mortality using cross- clear relation between the effects of health expenditure and the per capita income. We examined the association between social expenditures of the local government and the mortality level in Korea, to We used. this study is focused on the relationship between the infant mortality rate and real GDP. But, government expenditure on health as a percentage of GNP. 2.
The proxies used in measuring health outcomes may not be exhaustive as such information as morbidity and disability are not captured. Including three different health outcome measures, however, allows for robustness of results. While these limitations may be the bases for future research, they do not invalidate the results of the current study.
Conclusion The study sought to determine the impact of health care expenditure on health status measured by life expectancy at birth, crude death rate and infant mortality rate in SSA. The results provided evidence that health care expenditure was associated with increase in life expectancy at birth and reduction in death and infant mortality rates. The results also showed that while both private and public sources of health care expenditure were significantly associated with improved health outcomes, public health care expenditure had relatively larger impact.
The findings imply that, health care expenditures are essential components in improving health status in SSA.
There is need for governments in the region to increase amounts allocated to health care service delivery. In addition, establishing effective public-private partnerships in developing the health sector could go a long way to improve population health status.
Endnotes aThe following countries were included in the study: JN 2 contributed to refining the conception. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The demand for health: A theoretical and empirical investigation. Columbia University Press; Household response to health risks shocks: A study from Tanzania raise some methodological issues. Journal of International Development. Health and vulnerability to poverty in Ghana: Health expenditures and health outcomes in Africa.
World Health Organization; Patterns of global health expenditures: Book The World development indicators. The World Bank; The World development indicators. Beyound fragmentation and towards universal coverage: Bull World Health Organ. Public health expenditure as a determinant of health status in Lesotho. Soc Work Public Health. Applied macroeconomics and economic development. Adenikinju A, Olaniyan O, editor. Ibadan University Press; Public health care spending as a determinant of health status: After the famine was corrected, the IMR dropped to normal levels.
It dropped to This indicated that China had made remarkable achievement in making IMR fallen significantly. Before liberation of China, the people are very destitute. During the early years after liberation, China was still very poor. However, with the gradual stability of the social order, the people's nutrition and health status had been improved after the basic life was gradually guaranteed. The country promoted the popularization of laws on new midwifery, birth control and vaccination, and gradually established a service system of MCH.
Particularly, the barefoot doctors were popularized in rural areas, and the IMR decreased rapidly [ 14 ]. Foreign research showed that, during the Iraq war, the IMR rebounded [ 15 ]. After the end of the war, the IMR rapidly declined. Inthe implementation of the peace agreement was linked to the mortality rate of new-borns, infants and children below 5 years old in 73 armed conflict countries in the world. The continued armed conflict led to large-scale migration of population, destruction of the economic, medical and human infrastructure, which hindered the improvement of children's survival [ 4 ].
China's achievements are not only the result of the founding of the new China, but also the implementation of national support policy. In the beginning of the last century, the IMR and economic growth began to show a negative correlation, and the average growth rate of per capita GDP was only 3. With the deepening of reform and opening up and the rapid economic growth, this kind of negative correlation still existed, excepting years. This was related to the fluctuation of IMR in the late 70s and early 80s, which might be due to the fact that, the children death reporting system had not been established.
The IMR after reconstruction and adjustment was still lower than the actual level at that time. Perhaps a decline in IMR was not with a smooth and uniform decline, which was due to an annual fluctuation in the course of the decline in IMR. Whether this role would continue to exist in the future?
It is speculated that, when the IMR continued at a low level [ 16 ], its cause was a difficult problem to be solved in medical science, and the economic growth would be difficult to play a significant role in the decline of IMR. So this kind of negative relationship would not exist. After entering the initial relevant turning period, the orderly and appropriately increased GHE and timely regulating prevention and control strategies could promote the decline in IMR.
Social development, economic growth, material wealth, income growth and improvement of living conditions help to improve the quality of life and health conditions. At the same time, the economic development is the foundation of national health investment. It can promote the progress of medical science, make the health care possible, and create conditions for the prevention and control of the disease and promotion of health.
In addition, with the development of the social economy and the popularization of education, the population health and health care awareness have been continuously strengthened. As a result, the economic growth plays an indirect role in the decline of IMR. The health investment can be improved the level of health care service and promote the health quality. It also has indirect effect on the IMR.
At this time, the average growth rate of GHE per capita was lower than the GDP per capita, and the phenomenon of the fastest decline of IMR did not appear in the same period. This showed that, the impact of economic growth on IMR had a certain lag.
Inthe decline rate of IMR increased once again. This might be caused by the lag of economic growth, and might be related to that the growth rate of GHE per capita was higher than that of GDP per capita. If the economic growth is not significant, the government should increase investment in health, which can also affect the IMR. In fact, this is also the result of national policy supportled. In the early ten years of reform and opening up, the prototype of the framework system of maternal and child health policy in China was established.
In s, the policy of maternal and child health was fully improved.
Since 21st century, the policy of maternal and child health developed to the equalization of the direction of the people. In following 30 years, this policy transferred from the prevention and treatment of disease to the improvement of the quality of life. The only way to change the passive to active role is to increase the health investment.