The Greek polis (article) | Classical Greece | Khan Academy
In the fifty years after the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, Thebes, and Athens fought to win a dominant position of international power in the Greek world. Athens. Second, Greece's mountainous terrain led to the development of the polis The differences between Athens and Sparta eventually led to war between the two. Even external threats were not enough to keep the Greeks working together - if you Between and B.C., Athens, Sparta, and Thebes each tried to impose . Is there any connection between Sparta (Greece) and lsparta (Turkey )?.
Two of the ephors also accompanied one of the kings when on campaign. Just how these different political elements interacted is not known for certain, but clearly a degree of consensus was necessary for the state apparatus to function. Women in Sparta had more rights than women in other Greek city-states. In Sparta, they could own property, which they often gained through dowries and inheritances.
Some women became rich when the men in their families were killed in war. In fact, women eventually controlled nearly half of Spartan land. In addition, Spartan women could move around with reasonable freedom, wear non-constricting clothing, enjoy athletics, and even drink wine.
How were Spartan helots different from enslaved people? How was social status primarily determined in Sparta? Athens Athens emerged as the dominant economic power in Greece around the late sixth century BCE, its power and wealth was further bolstered by the discovery of silver in the neighboring mountains. Athens was at the center of an efficient trading system with other Greek city states.
Trade was incredibly important for Athens, as it did not have the agricultural conditions to cultivate enough grain for its population. Athens transitioned through different systems of government as its population grew and became wealthier through maritime trade.
This wealth became increasingly concentrated in the hands of a few members of the aristocracy, who were also political leaders, leaving other members of society in debt, sometimes to the point of being forced into debt slavery.History Summarized: Alcibiades
Further, there was a perceived lack of consistency among the laws of the city. The first series of laws written to address these inequities was provided by the statesman Draco around BCE, but the laws were considered too severe—the penalty for most infractions was death! This is where we get the term draconian! An aristocrat named Solon was called upon to modify and revise these harsh laws; he created a series of laws which equalized political power.
Two of the changes for which Solon was responsible were the cancellation of debts and the abolition of debt slavery. He also created opportunities for some common people to participate in the government of Athens. In doing so, Solon laid the groundwork for democracy in Athens. Pericles led Athens between and BCE; he was an incredibly well-liked leader known for encouraging culture, philosophy, and science and for advocating for the common people.
Under Pericles, Athens entered its golden age and great thinkers, writers, and artists flourished in the city. Democritus envisioned an atomic universe.
Aeschylus, Euripides, Aristophanes, and Sophocles wrote their famous plays. This legacy continued as, later, Plato founded his Academy outside the walls of Athens in BCE and, even later, Aristotle's Lyceum was founded in the city center.
Still, Athenian democracy was limited to its male citizens. Foreigners, enslaved people, and women were excluded from these institutions. While women of the upper classes were often literate, most were not likely to receive an education beyond what was needed for the execution of their domestic duties.
They required male chaperones to travel in public. Enslaved people, while not involved in political affairs, were integral to the Athenian economy. They cultivated food, worked large construction projects, and labored in mines and quarries.
Enslaved people were present in most Athenian households, carrying out an array of domestic duties. Where does the term draconian come from?
Colonization and the Persian Wars Due to the increasing populations of the city states and the insufficient resources available, many Greeks began to look outward and create settlements outside of mainland Greece. Between the eighth and sixth centuries, hundreds of colonies were established on the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black seas.
The Contest for Hegemy: Sparta, Thebes, and Athens
Later, Greek communities would settle in modern-day Sicily and southern Italy, even as far as modern-day southern France. Eventually, more Greeks lived in these settlements than on mainland Greece.
A map of Greek and Phoenician colonization on the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black seas. Greek and Phoenician colonization from - BCE. Ancient History Encyclopedia Greek colonization invigorated the networks of trade and exchange throughout the Mediterranean. Greek language and culture spread throughout the region.
However, it also brought conflict and tensions with the Persian empire, inaugurating the two-decade long Persian Wars from to BCE. As Persia consolidated its control over its conquests in Anatolia, Greek communities living in that area, called Ionia, resisted Persian rule. To support the Ionian Greeks, the Athenians sent their impressive fleet, which prompted retribution from the Persians. The ensuing conflict drew in other Greek city-states, most notably, Sparta.
Conflict between the Greeks and Persians continued for over years. The Delian league and the Peloponnesian War Though the Greek city-states were unified to some extent in the face of an external threat, as that threat waned, conflicts between the city-states made a resurgence. Following the wars, Athens emerged as the supreme naval power in Greece. It formed the Delian League, ostensibly to create a cohesive Greek network among city-states to ward off further Persian attacks.
Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens grew so powerful that the Athenian Empire could effectively dictate the laws, customs, and trade of all her neighbors in Attica and the islands of the Aegean. A map of the alliances at the start of the Peloponnesian war in Greece. Athens probably never regained the same economic and military strength that it had formerly wielded in the fifth century B. Nevertheless, it did recover after the re-establishment of democracy in B.
Sparta's widespread attempts to extend its power in the years after the Peloponnesian War gave Athens and the other Greeks states ample opportunity for diplomatic and military action. Xenophon, who enlisted under Cyrus, wrote a stirring account in his Anabasis of the expedition's disastrous defeat at Cunaxa near Babylon and the arduous and long journey home through hostile territory of the terrified Greek mercenaries from Cyrus's routed army.
Sparta had supported Cyrus's rebellion, thereby arousing the hostility of Artaxerxes. The Spartan general Lysander, the victor over Athens in the last years of the Peloponnesian War, pursued an aggressive policy in Anatolia and northern Greece, and other Spartan commanders meddled in Sicily. Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos thereupon formed an anti-Spartan coalition because they saw this Spartan activity as threatening their own interests at home and abroad.
The Greek polis
The Corinthian War and the King's Peace In a reversal of the alliances of the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Persian king initially allied with Athens and the other Greek city-states against Sparta in the so-called Corinthian War, which lasted from to B.
But this alliance failed, too, because the king and the Greek allies were seeking their own advantage rather than peaceful accommodation.
- 5a. Rise of City-States: Athens and Sparta
The war ended with Sparta once again cutting a deal with Persia. In a blatant renunciation of its claim to be the defender of Greek freedom, Sparta acknowledged the Persian king's right to control the Greek city-states of Anatolia in return for permission to secure Spartan interests in Greece without Persian interference. The King's Peace of B. Spartan Aggression and Athenian Resurgence Spartan forces attacked city-states all over Greece in the years after the peace.
Athens, meanwhile, had restored its invulnerability to invasion by rebuilding the long walls connecting the city and the harbor.