US-Iran relations: A brief guide - BBC News
Donald Trump has been giving off some rather mixed messages when it comes to Iran lately. After pulling the United States out of a landmark. Iran's relations with the United States were completely different. The 19th- and early 20th-century history of British and Russian imperial. The enduring estrangement between the United States and Iran represents the But when it comes to U.S.-Iran relations, it seems the more things change, the.
On January 20,the date the treaty was signed, the hostages were released. American contact with Iran through The Hague covers only legal matters. The crisis led to lasting economic and diplomatic damage. On 7 AprilCarter severed diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States and they have been frozen ever since. Instead, parts of the embassy complex were turned into an anti-American museum, while other parts became offices for student organizations.
However, Iran later chose Pakistan to be its protecting power in the United States. Economic consequences of the Iran hostage crisis[ edit ] See also: Sanctions against Iran Families wait for the former hostages to disembark the plane. Before the Revolution, the United States was Iran's foremost economic and military partner. This facilitated the modernization of Iran's infrastructure and industry, with as many as 30, American expatriates residing in the country in a technical, consulting, or teaching capacity.
Some analysts argue that the transformation may have been too rapid, fueling unrest and discontent among an important part of the population in the country and leading to the Revolution in According to American officials, most of those were released in as part of the deal to release the hostages. Commercial relations between Iran and the United States are restricted by American sanctions and consist mainly of Iranian purchases of food, spare parts, and medical products as well as American purchases of carpets and food.
Sanctions originally imposed in by President Bill Clinton were renewed by President Bush, who cited the "unusual and extraordinary threat" to American national security posed by Iran. The executive orders prohibit American companies and their foreign subsidiaries from conducting business with Iran, while banning any "contract for the financing of the development of petroleum resources located in Iran".
The ILSA was renewed for five more years in Congressional bills signed in extended and added provisions to the act; on September 30,the act was renamed the Iran Sanctions Act ISAas it no longer applied to Libya, and extended until December 31, Reagan administration[ edit ] See also: United States support for Iraq during the Iran—Iraq war American intelligence and logistical support played a crucial role in arming Iraq in the Iran—Iraq Waralthough Bob Woodward states that the United States gave information to both sides, hoping "to engineer a stalemate".
Bush authorized the sale to Iraq of numerous dual-use items, including poisonous chemicals and deadly biological viruses, such as anthrax and bubonic plague. Hezbollah bombings[ edit ] The United States contends that Hezbollaha Shi'ite Islamist organization and client of Iran, has been involved in several anti-American terrorist attacks, including the April United States Embassy bombing which killed 17 Americans, the Beirut barracks bombing which killed US peace keepers in Lebanonand the Khobar Towers bombing.
An American district court judge ruled in that the April United States Embassy bombing was carried out with Iranian support.
Timeline: Iran-US relations
Lamberth declared that the Islamic Republic of Iran was responsible for the attack in a case brought by the victims' families. Lamberth concluded that Hezbollah was formed under the auspices of the Iranian government, was completely reliant on Iran inand assisted Iranian Ministry of Information and Security agents in carrying out the operation. Anti-communist purge[ edit ] According to the Tower Commission report: Inthe U. Using this information, the Khomeini government took measures, including mass executions, that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran.
Iran—Contra affair In violation of an arms embargo, officials of President Ronald Reagan's administration arranged in the mids to sell armaments to Iran in an attempt to improve relations with Iran and obtain their influence in the release of hostages held in Lebanon.
Oliver North of the National Security Council then diverted proceeds from the arms sale to fund Contra rebels attempting to overthrow the left wing government of Nicaraguawhich was in direct violation of the United States Congress ' Boland Amendment. Cartoon from satirizing Russia and England dividing up Persia. The 19th- and early 20th-century history of British and Russian imperial ambitions and involvement in Iran put Iran in a dependent, exploited position at the hands of the governments of these two countries.
But the presence in Iran of American missionaries and, later, invited government technocrats was of an entirely different quality. These were Americans offering aid, with no expectation of advantage to be gained officially for the United States government.
American Presbyterian missionary efforts in Iran began in and focused on education, with schools established around Urmia by Efforts were also directed at medical and social welfare.
Iran-US relations - BBC News
These were nongovernmental missions. By the late 19th century, the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions had opened new stations in cities across northern Iranfrom Tehran to Mashhad. American diplomatic relations with Persia were established in After the First World War, Presbyterian schools for both boys and girls proliferated, the most famous of which were the American College of Tehran for boys, established inand Iran Bethel School for girls.
- Iran-US relations
- Iran–United States relations
Morgan Shustera distinguished career civil servant, was appointed by Persia in February He arrived in Tehran in May, bringing with him four other Americans. The mission was a failure, lasting only eight months, and, unsurprisingly, was adroitly sabotaged by the combined efforts of British and Russian diplomats in Tehran. American William Morgan Shuster, treasurer-general of Persia.
With none of the colonialist baggage associated with the two European superpowers, America was turned to, almost as a last resort, to fix what ailed Iran. Riza Shah father of the last shah appointed an American, Arthur C. Five days of rioting ensues after which the Shah, under pressure, reinstates Mossadeq and concedes to his demands.The U.S. and Iran weren’t always enemies. What happened?
For the next year, Mossadeq passes reforms limiting the Shah's unconstitutional powers. Mossadeq is deposed by his military officers in a coup orchestrated by American and British intelligence agencies, restoring power to the Shah. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a religious leader and fierce critic of the Shah, begins what would be 14 years of exile in Iraq.
The US-backed Shah is forced to flee to Egypt. Khomeini returns from exile and seizes power.
US-Iran relations: A brief guide
The new Iranian government terminates its membership in the Baghdad Pact. Iranian students seize 63 hostages at the American embassy in Tehran demanding the return of the Shah to face trial.
The US severs diplomatic ties and imposes sanctions on Iran. In a war that would last for the next eight years, Western-backed Iraq invades Iran. The last 52 hostages are freed a few hours after Jimmy Carter, the then US president, leaves office. They were held for days. These illegal funds are used to help Nicaraguan rebels.
This comes to be known as the Iran-Contra scandal. This follows an incident a month earlier when the same cruiser opened fire on Iranian small boats searching a bulk carrier.
Iran remains neutral during the Gulf War. Oil and trade sanctions are imposed on Iran by Bill Clinton, the then US president, after he accuses Tehran of sponsoring terrorism and seeking to acquire weapons of mass destruction.
Mohammed Khatami is elected president of Iran. He calls for dialogue with the American people in an interview on US network television. Clinton extends sanctions on US oil contracts with Iran after Iranian reformists win in the general election.
Madeleine Albright, the then US secretary of state, meets with Kamal Kharrazi, the then Iranian foreign minister, at the UN for the first such talks since the Iranian revolution in