ZEUS - Greek God of the Sky, King of the Gods (Roman Jupiter)
HERA was the Olympian queen of the gods, and the goddess of marriage, women, the This site contains a total of 6 pages describing the goddess, including general Hera-Juno, Greco-Roman marble statue C2nd A.D., Musée du Louvre. Zeus was the king of the ancient Greek gods, and the god of the sky, weather, law Zeus married his sister Hera, queen of the heavens, after seducing her in the . ): a number of epithets of Zeus in the Homeric poems describe him as the . which had been embodied in the statue of the Olympian Zeus by Pheidias. Zeus constantly fell in love with other women during his marriage to Hera and The wise man recommended making a wooden statue of a woman, draping it in.
One account of the origin of the Milky Way is that Zeus had tricked Hera into nursing the infant Heracles: He had previously wounded her severely in the breast. When Heracles reached adulthood, Hera drove him madwhich led him to murder his family and this later led to him undertaking his famous labours.
The Rocky Relationship of Zeus and Hera
Hera assigned Heracles to labour for King Eurystheus at Mycenae. She attempted to make almost each of Heracles' twelve labours more difficult. When he fought the Lernaean Hydrashe sent a crab to bite at his feet in the hopes of distracting him.
Later Hera stirred up the Amazons against him when he was on one of his quests. When Heracles took the cattle of Geryonhe shot Hera in the right breast with a triple-barbed arrow: Afterwards, Hera sent a gadfly to bite the cattle, irritate them and scatter them. Hera then sent a flood which raised the water level of a river so much that Heracles could not ford the river with the cattle.
He piled stones into the river to make the water shallower. When he finally reached the court of Eurystheus, the cattle were sacrificed to Hera. Eurystheus also wanted to sacrifice the Cretan Bull to Hera. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles. The bull was released and wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull. Some myths state that in the end, Heracles befriended Hera by saving her from Porphyriona giant who tried to rape her during the Gigantomachyand that she even gave her daughter Hebe as his bride.
Whatever myth-making served to account for an archaic representation of Heracles as "Hera's man" it was thought suitable for the builders of the Heraion at Paestum to depict the exploits of Heracles in bas-reliefs. Apollo and Artemis[ edit ] When Hera discovered that Leto was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she convinced the nature spirits to prevent Leto from giving birth on terra-firmathe mainland, any island at sea, or any place under the sun.
Myths and Legends
Alternatively, Hera kidnapped Eileithyiathe goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor. The other gods bribed Hera with a beautiful necklace nobody could resist and she finally gave in. Later Tityos attempted to rape Leto at the behest of Hera. He was slain by Artemis and Apollo. Hera saw a lone thundercloud and raced down in an attempt to catch Zeus with a mistress.
Zeus saw her coming and transformed his new bride Io into a little snow-white cow.
Zeus and Hera V.S. Hades and Persephone
However, Hera was not fooled and demanded that Zeus give her the heifer as a present. Zeus could not refuse his queen without drawing suspicion so he had to give her the beautiful heifer.
Argus was a loyal servant to Hera and he has immense strength and one hundred eyes all over his body. It was not possible to go past Argus since he never closed more than half his eyes at any time. Zeus was afraid of Hera's wrath could not personally intervene, so to save Io, he commanded Hermes to kill Argus, which he does by lulling all one hundred eyes into eternal sleep.
In Ovid 's interpolation, when Hera learned of Argus' death, she took his eyes and placed them in the plumage of the peacockher favorite animal, accounting for the eye pattern in its tail and making it the vainest of all animals.
Eventually Io made it to Egyptthe Egyptians worshiped the snow-white heifer and named her the Egyptian goddess Isis. Hera permitted Zeus to change Io back into her human form, under the condition that he never look at her again. Io, the goddess-queen of Egypt, then bore Zeus' son as the next King. Judgement of Paris This is one of the many works depicting the event.
- 5c. Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes
Hera is the goddess in the center, wearing the crown. She was annoyed at this, so she threw from the door a gift of her own: The goddesses quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. They chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Parisa Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida where Troy was situated, they appeared before Paris to have him choose.
The goddesses undressed before him, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes.
The Rocky Relationship of Zeus and Hera
Hera offered Paris political power and control of all of Asiawhile Athena offered wisdom, fame, and glory in battle, and Aphrodite offered the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen's abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War.
The Iliad[ edit ] Hera plays a substantial role in The Iliadappearing in a number of books throughout the epic poem. In accordance with ancient Greek mythology, Hera's hatred towards the Trojanswhich was started by Paris' decision that Aphrodite was the most beautiful goddess, is seen as through her support of the Greeks during the war. Throughout the epic Hera makes many attempts to thwart the Trojan army. In books 1 and 2, Hera declares that the Trojans must be destroyed.
Hera persuades Athena to aid the Achaeans in battle and she agrees to assist with interfering on their behalf. Diomedes called for his soldiers to fall back slowly. Hera, Ares' mother, saw Ares' interference and asked ZeusAres' father, for permission to drive Ares away from the battlefield.
Hera encouraged Diomedes to attack Ares and he threw his spear at the god. Athena drove the spear into Ares' body, and he bellowed in pain and fled to Mt.
Olympusforcing the Trojans to fall back. In book 8, Hera tries to persuade Poseidon to disobey Zeus and help the Achaean army. Determined to intervene in the war, Hera and Athena head to the battlefield. However, seeing the two flee, Zeus sent Iris to intercept them and make them return to Mt. Olympus or face grave consequences. After prolonged fighting, Hera sees Poseidon aiding the Greeks and giving them motivation to keep fighting.
In book 14 Hera devises a plan to deceive Zeus. There is only one point in which the Homeric poems represent Hera as possessed of similar power with Zeus, viz.
But this idea is not further developed in later times. Her character, as described by Homer, is not of a very amiable kind, and its main features are jealousy, obstinacy, and a quarrelling disposition, which sometimes makes her own husband tremble i. Hence there arise frequent disputes between Hera and Zeus; and on one occasion Hera, in conjunction with Poseidon and Athena, contemplated putting Zeus into chains viii.
Zeus, in such cases, not only threatens, but beats her; and once he even hung her up in the clouds, her hands chained, and with two anvils suspended from her feet viii. Hence she is frightened by his threats, and gives way when he is angry; and when she is unable to gain her ends in any other way, she has recourse to cunning and intrigues xix. Thus she borrowed from Aphrodite the girdle, the giver of charm and fascination, to excite the love of Zeus xiv.
By Zeus she was the mother of Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus v. Respecting the different traditions about the descent of these three divinities see the separate articles. Properly speaking, Hera was the only really married goddess among the Olympians, for the marriage of Aphrodite with Ares can scarcely be taken into consideration; and hence she is the goddess of marriage and of the birth of children.
Her attire is described in the Iliad xiv. Her favourite places on earth were Argos, Sparta, and Mycenae iv. Owing to the judgment of Paris, she was hostile towards the Trojans, and in the Trojan war she accordingly sided with the Greeks ii.
Hence she prevailed on Helius to sink down into the waves of Oceanus on the day on which Patroclus fell xviii. In the Iliad she appears as an enemy of Heracles, but is wounded by his arrows v.
It is impossible here to enumerate all the events of mythical story in which Hera acts a more or less prominent part; and the reader must refer to the particular deities or heroes with whose story she is connected. Hera had sanctuaries, and was worshipped in many parts of Greece, often in common with Zeus. Her worship there may be traced to the very earliest times: According to tradition, Hera had disputed the possession of Argos with Poseidon, but the river-gods of the country adjudicated it to her.
Her most celebrated sanctuary was situated between Argos and Mycenae, at the foot of Mount Euboea. The vestibule of the temple contained ancient statues of the Charites, the bed of Hera, and a shield which Menelaus had taken at Troy from Euphorbus.
The sitting colossal statue of Hera in this temple, made of gold and ivory, was the work of Polycletus. She wore a crown on her head, adorned with the Charites and Horae; in the one hand she held a pomegranate, and in the other a sceptre headed with a cuckoo.
Respecting the great quinquennial festival celebrated to her at Argos, see Dict. Her worship was very ancient also at Corinth Paus. Respecting the real significance of Hera, the ancients themselves offer several interpretations: According to modern views, Hera is the great goddess of nature, who was every where worshipped from the earliest times.
The noblest image, and which was afterwards looked upon as the ideal of the goddess, was the statue by Polycletus. She was usually represented as a majestic woman at a mature age, with a beautiful forehead, large and widely opened eyes, and with a grave expression commanding reverence.Greek Mythology Creation Story Explained in Animation
Her hair was adorned with a crown or a diadem.