Two roads meet chapter 20 biotechnology

two roads meet chapter 20 biotechnology

84 Theobald's Road, London WC1X 8RR, UK. This book is .. the 20th century, the study of the brain moved from a peripheral The second section (Cellular and Molecular Neurosci- .. In ,. scientists convened at the first annual meeting of Biotechnology of b-adrenergic receptors. Mol. 2. Biotechnology Update. Internal Co-ordination Group for Biotechnology (ICGB) .. of this work will be presented to the November meeting of the OECD .. Consequence of Inaction', (biodiversity chapter), released in , . 20, OECD Publishing, Paris, hidden-facts.info This chapter reviews the background of the biotech entrepreneur, as independence, confidence, a desire to take the road less traveled, a passion for their work, the . I recently met a first-time entrepreneur, who asked me to evaluate his . time-intensive two years (studying an additional 20–25 hours per week on top of a.

Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda have conducted field trials on the following broad range of staple and orphan crops: The WEMA project is expected to deliver its first biotech stacked drought tolerant maize with insect control Bt in South Africa as early asfollowed by Kenya and Uganda, and then by Mozambique and Tanzania, subject to regulatory approval.

Five EU countries plantedhectares of biotech Bt maize.

Ch. 20 - Biotechnology hidden-facts.info

Modest increases were reported in three countries: Portugal, Romania and Slovakia and marginal decreases in two countries: Generally in the EU countries, there is a disincentive for farmers to plant Bt maize because of the negative effect of onerous and over-demanding EU farmer reporting procedures.

From these countries, 3, regulatory approvals have been issued by competent authorities across 27 GM crops and GM events. Japan has the most number of approved eventsfollowed by the U.

Maize still has the most number of events events in 29 countriesfollowed by cotton 52 events in 21 countriescanola 32 events in 13 countriespotato 31 events in 10 countriesand soybean 30 events in 28 countries. Future Prospects Feeding the World of Feeding over 9 billion people in is one of, if not THE most daunting challenges facing mankind during the remaining years of this century.

The following paragraphs chronicle some of the salient and critical facts in relation to the dimensions of feeding the world of and beyond. Globally, million people are currently chronically hungry and 2 billion are malnourished.

Rates of growth in crop productivity have declined subsequent to the significant contribution of the green revolutions of wheat and rice. It is now evident that conventional crop technology alone will not allow us to feed over 9 billion in and neither is biotechnology a panacea.

Biotech crops contribution to Food Security, Sustainability and Climate Change Provisional data for to showed that biotech crops contributed to Food Security, Sustainability and Climate Change by: Biotech crops are essential but are not a panacea and adherence to good farming practices, such as rotations and resistance management, are a must for biotech crops as they are for conventional crops.

Contribution of biotech crops to Sustainability Biotech crops are contributing to sustainability in the following five ways: Approximately 13 million hectares of biodiversity — rich tropical forests, are lost in developing countries annually. Some of the additional million hectares would probably have required fragile marginal lands, not suitable for crop production, to be ploughed, and for tropical forest, rich in biodiversity, to be felled to make way for slash and burn agriculture in developing countries, thereby destroying biodiversity.

This can be enhanced in the remaining years of this decade to principally with biotech cotton and maize.

Bio 104: Issues in Biotechnology

EIQ is a composite measure based on the various factors contributing to the net environmental impact of an individual active ingredient. The corresponding data for alone was a reduction of 36 million kgs a. Increasing efficiency of water usage will have a major impact on conservation and availability of water globally.

Drought tolerance is expected to have a major impact on more sustainable cropping systems worldwide, particularly in developing countries, where drought will likely be more prevalent and severe than industrial countries. First, permanent savings in carbon dioxide CO2 emissions through reduced use of fossil-based fuels, associated with fewer insecticide and herbicide sprays.

Provisionally in alone, this was an estimated saving of 2. Secondly, additional savings from conservation tillage need for less or no ploughing facilitated by herbicide tolerant biotech crops for biotech food, feed and fiber crops, led to an additional soil carbon sequestration equivalent in to Thus inthe combined permanent and additional savings through sequestration was equivalent to a saving of 28 billion kg of CO2 or removing Droughts, floods, and temperature changes are predicted to become more prevalent and more severe as we face the new challenges associated with climate change, and hence, there will be a need for faster crop improvement programs to develop varieties and hybrids that are well adapted to more rapid changes in climatic conditions.

Biotech crops are already contributing to reducing CO2 emissions by precluding the need for ploughing a significant portion of cropped land, conserving soil, particularly moisture, and reducing pesticide spraying as well as sequestering CO2.

In summary, collectively the above five thrusts have already demonstrated the capacity of biotech crops to contribute to sustainability in a significant manner and for mitigating the formidable challenges associated with climate change — global warming, and the potential for the future is enormous. Stewardship and Resistance Management of Biotech Crops The two major biotech crop traits of insect resistance IR and herbicide tolerance HT have made an enormous contribution to global food, feed and fiber production since they were first approved for commercial cultivation inalmost 20 years ago.

ISAAA Brief 49-2014: Executive Summary

These same two trait s have also been successfully incorporated in a range of other commercialized biotech crops including alfalfa, brinjal eggplantsugar beet and poplar; the two traits have also been successfully incorporated in the other two major staples of rice and wheat for future deployment as new commercial biotech crops.

Irrespective of whether the technology is conventional or biotech, the wide-spread adoption of insect resistance and herbicide tolerance leads, over time, to insect pest resistance and resistant weeds, thereby diminishing their benefits to farmers. Coincidentally, new scientific methods evolved around gene pyramiding, and stacking of traits to enable more effective management and stewardship of resistance in the new biotech crops.

As anticipated, studies have confirmed that the first generation IR and HT traits are becoming susceptible to resistant targeted insect pests and weeds respectively.

two roads meet chapter 20 biotechnology

Hence, approaches for managing Bt resistance must be assigned a high priority, particularly as more crops feature Bt genes simple and stacked and in already occupied 55 million hectares. Similarly, several studies indicate that a considerable number of weeds have shown resistance to the application of herbicides including the widely used glyphosate, thereby potentially limiting the future use of the product in its current form.

The two decades of experience and the trend in technological development suggest that the following 12 elements be considered to achieve effective and strict implementation of resistance management and stewardship: The wide scale use of the refuge-in-bag RIB strategy and regulatory compliance needs to be strictly implemented.

Importantly, all stakeholders including the scientific community, farmers, policy makers and the private sector must be made aware of their collective responsibility and the fact that the overall system of managing resistance will NOT work if any single stakeholder is delinquent in its implementation.

two roads meet chapter 20 biotechnology

Status of Golden Rice Women and children are the most vulnerable to vitamin A deficiency VADthe leading cause of childhood blindness and inability of the immune systems to combat disease. WHO reports in and that to million preschool children worldwide are still affected by VAD annually. This means that vitamin A availability for 8 million late infancy and pre-eschool age children in undernourished settings could prevent 1.

IRRI reports that as of Marchthe research, analysis and testing of beta carotene-enriched Golden Rice continues, in partnership with collaborating national research agencies in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Bangladesh.

The Golden Rice event R GR2-R was introgressed into selected mega varieties, field tested for three seasons to evaluate the agronomic and product performance under Philippine field conditions.

Preliminary results of the conducted multi locational trials show that while the target level of beta-carotene in the grain was attained, yield was on an average lower than yields from comparable local varieties already preferred by farmers. Hence, the new objective of increasing yield became the focus of the current research to include other versions of GR2 such as GR2-E and others. At IRRI, the Golden Rice trait is being bred into mega varieties to get suitable advance lines, and once attained the series of confined field trials will resume.

two roads meet chapter 20 biotechnology

IRRI and its many research partners remain committed to developing a high-performing Golden Rice variety that benefits farmers and consumers. The important mission of the Golden Rice project — to contribute to improving the health of millions of people suffering from micronutrient deficiency — demands that every step and aspect of the scientific study of Golden Rice be carefully planned.

IRRI and all participating organizations will continue to rigorously follow all biosafety and other regulatory protocols in continuing the research to develop and disseminate Golden Rice. Once released, Golden Rice has the potential to provide beta carotene fortified carbohydrate staple, totaling an estimated 2, calories per day in the major countries of the South suffering from VAD. The following is the breakdown by region per day: Potential New Biotech Crops in the next 5 to 10 years One of the concerns often voiced by critics of biotech crops is the narrow focus on four principal crops soybean, maize, cotton, and canola and two traits, herbicide tolerance and insect resistance.

However, in the last five years there have been a significant broadening of the number of commercialized biotech crops to include a significant hectarage of sugar beet, and alfalfa along with continued small hectarages of squash, papaya, eggplant and poplar, for a total of 10 commercial biotech crops in Global Information on biotech crops undergoing field trials is of interest to many but it is not always easy to access the information.

The list provides the reader with a general global overview of the possible future scope of new biotech crops that may become available subject to regulatory approval during the next 5 to 10 years.

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Whereas the list of 71 entries is not exhaustive, in reviewing the data base of 71 entries, the following are some of the general features that maybe of interest: The new biotech crops include apple, banana, camelina, cassava, citrus, chickpea, cowpea, groundnut, mustard, pigeon pea, potato, rice, safflower, sugarcane and wheat.

This, combined with the fact that about half of the trials are being conducted in developing countries, with an increasing number in Africa which presents the greatest challenges, is encouraging news for the development community globally.

two roads meet chapter 20 biotechnology

Non-transgenic Biotech Products Up until now transgenic modification has been achieved using Agrobacterium or the gene gun. New advanced biotech applications such as zinc finger nucleases ZFN technology, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat CRISPR -associated nuclease systems and transcription activator-like effector nucleases TALENsare being used to increase the efficiency and precision of the transformation process.

These new techniques allow the cutting of the DNA at a pre-determined location and the precise insertion of the mutation, or single nucleotide changes at an optimal location in the genome for maximum expression. Powdery mildew-resistant wheat was developed by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences through advanced gene editing methods.

Wheat is a hexaploid and thus required deletion of multiple copies of the genes. This also represents a significant achievement in modifying food crops without inserting foreign genes, hence considering it as a non GM technique. Another class of new applications, still at the early stages of development, are plant membrane transporters that are being researched to overcome a range of crop constraints from abiotic and biotic stresses to enhancement of micronutrients.

It is noteworthy that of the current 7 billion global population, almost one billion is undernourished but another one billion is malnourished, lacking critical micro nutrients: Adequate supply of nutritious foods with enhanced levels of important micronutrients is critical for human health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase micronutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminum toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.

The tripartite project involved three partners: Following the implementation of the Mexican project, ISAAA further explored the possibility of building a biotech transfer project in which more than one country would share the same donated technology, thus providing a multiplier effect for technology transfer.

The project that evolved featured the donation of an event for conferring resistance to the lethal papaya ringspot virus PRSV of papaya. The developing county partners were five countries in South East Asia all of whom had identified PRSV as a common need and top priority because conventional technology did not offer a solution.

The five developing country partners in South East Asia where lead public sector laboratories in crop biotechnology were involved were, in alphabetic order: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Agricultural Biochechnology 6 Bio Issues in Biotechnology Are there any foods or ingredients that you have avoided or eaten less of? Agricultural Biochechnology 8 Bio Issues in Biotechnology If yes, what foods or ingredients did you avoid or eat less of? Agricultural Biochechnology 9 Bio Agricultural Biochechnology 10 Bio Issues in Biotechnology FDA requires special labeling when a food is produced under certain conditions: Otherwise special labeling is not required.

Would you say that you support or oppose this policy of FDA? Issues in Biotechnology Current FDA labeling policy supported by majority FDA requires special labeling when a food is produced under certain conditions: Agricultural Biochechnology 12 Bio Agricultural Biochechnology 13 Bio Agricultural Biochechnology 14 Bio Issues in Biotechnology How is a gene cloned?

Agricultural Biochechnology 15 Bio Foreign DNA gene is inserted into a plasmid that has a gene for antibiotic resistance The plasmid is introduced into a bacterial cell and grown on the antibiotic Only bacteria with the plasmid grow…the inserted gene is copied many times Feb 20a: Agricultural Biochechnology 16 Bio Agricultural Biochechnology 17 Bio Agricultural Biochechnology 18 Bio Agricultural Biochechnology 19 Constitutive expression of rainbow trout growth factor hormone A Success Story: Genetically Modified Salmon Constitutive expression of rainbow trout growth factor hormone All salmon shown are fourteen months old, those at the bottom are the controls 20 Transgenic Atlantic salmon produced by Aqua Bounty Inc.

Growth rate, not ultimate size is enhanced. First transgenic meat product. Molecular weight markers are usually a mixture of DNAs with known molecular weights. Kary Mullis in the s and is called PCR.