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Cathedraltown swim meet software. Software needed for new computer. Panasonic hdc software. Aktiv software gmbh ansfelden. Software test driver stub. Since our ftp program has a bug in it that scrambles the date [tried to fix of seeing him meet the fate of the lamented Mr. Topsawyer, and fall lifeless on the carpet. of the great probability of something turning up in a cathedral town. .. I only know that I swim about in space, with a blue angel, in a state. to say hello and meet the women and men of the Walnut Creek .. pool and Dollar golf course .. non-represented employee benefits program budget for. by stop at the cathedral town of Rouen, where Joan of Arc.

With royal approval, many of the stones for the new cathedral were taken from the old one ; others came from Chilmark. They were probably transported by ox -cart, owing to the obstruction to boats on the River Nadder caused by its many weirs and watermills. The cathedral is considered a masterpiece of Early English architecture. The spire's large clock was installed inand is one of the oldest surviving mechanical clocks in the world. The city wall surrounds the Close and was built in the 14th century, again with stones removed from the former cathedral at Old Sarum.

The wall now has five gates: During his time in the city, the composer Handel stayed in a room above St Ann's gate. The original site of the city at Old Sarum, meanwhile, fell into disuse.

It continued as a rotten borough: A picture of Minster Street, c. Edward met Robert the Bruce and others at Salisbury in Octoberwhich resulted in the Treaty of Salisburyunder which Margaret would be sent to Scotland before 1 November and any agreement on her future marriage would be delayed until she was in Scotland. The riots occurred for related reasons, although the declining fortunes of Salisbury's cloth trade may also have been influential. The violence peaked with the murder of the bishop, William Ayscoughwho been involved with the government.

Inan act for making the River Avon navigable from Christchurch to the city of New Sarum was passed [32] and the work completed, only for the project to be ruined shortly thereafter by a major flood.

He arrived to lead his approximately 19 men on 19 November His troops were not keen to fight Mary or her husband William, and the loyalty of many of James's commanders was in doubt. The first blood was shed at the Wincanton Skirmishin Somerset. In Salisbury, James heard that some of his officers had deserted, such as Edward Hydeand he broke out in a nosebleedwhich he took as an omen that he should retreat.

His commander in chief, the Earl of Fevershamadvised retreat on 23 November, and the next day John Churchill defected to William. On 26 November, James's own daughter, Princess Annedid the same, and James returned to London the same day, never again to be at the head of a serious military force in England. Salisbury[ edit ] The Local Government Act eliminated the administration of the City of New Sarum under its former charters, but its successor, Wiltshire County 's Salisbury Districtcontinued to be accorded its former city status.

The name was finally formally amended from "New Sarum" to "Salisbury" during the changes occasioned by the Local Government Actwhich established the Salisbury City Council. Salisbury City Council and Wiltshire Council. It was once at the heart of the now defunct Salisbury Districtwhich oversaw most of south Wiltshire as well as the city.

The headmaster, "often at the mercy of a metaphor", wanted to combine "light and shade" in each class. Not surprisingly, they lacked the techniques that might have enlivened a mixed-ability classroom. Benson's solution was to treat each class as "two sets, and teach them alternately, finding some occupation for the clever boys while one was slowly drilling elementary work into the others. Perhaps the most notable feature of Warre's dogged defence of mixed ability teaching — he finally relented to unanimous pressure in and acquiesced in streaming [70] — was his failure to sacrifice his own preference to secure the trade-off for further curriculum change.

The problem was that for Warre, like many one-time reformers, his basic system was fundamentally sound and therefore essentially sacrosanct.

The key problem was that the extra subjects were simply added on to an already creaking timetable. Benson caustically described proposals advanced by Warre in as an attempt "to keep the present system intact and specialise a little more — and call it a reform.

The Eton "system", he complained that year, was already designed "to crush the master under mechanical and useless work Unlike his later and lighter books, which were mainly published as instant first drafts, [76] his two-volume account of the life of EWB involved considerable rewriting, as ecclesiastics in particular criticised his initial accounts of Church matters.

He actually drafted a letter of resignation in Junewhich specifically referred to the additional work that had fallen upon him as a result of EWB's death Benson was his father's executor, a responsibility of more than merely family importanceand claimed that he could only conscientiously discharge one third of his burdens as an Eton master.

But eighty per cent leave us ignorant of everything, even Greek and Latin, hating books, despising knowledge, admiring athletics, mistaking amiability for character — and that is what we sweat our brains out to produce.

It is simply deplorable. Two answers emerge from his diary. One was the practical financial issue: Boys, Beauty and Brides It seems fair to generalise that modern biographical scholarship must accept three basic points regarding sexuality. The first is that exploration of a subject's sexual identity and the ways in which it was expressed is vital to the creation of a fully rounded portrait. The second is establishing that identity is not always easy for the student, not least because it was often far from straightforward for the subject.

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Both Newsome and Goldhill note that Benson apparently only became aware of the concept of homosexuality or at least the term, which he rendered as two words, and in just two diary entries in the last year of his life. The third is that the interpretation of evidence is complicated by the problem that we may hear messages in the vocabulary of a century ago that were never intended by the original writer: Benson's claim to be "greatly interested in my boys" almost certainly falls into that category.

Similarly, his comment in that a theosophist might conclude that "I have the soul of a woman in the body of a man" was a reflection on his preference for male company over female, not as might be interpreted nowadays a plea for gender realignment. The other might have been his obsessive belief in his early — even imminent — death. As Newsome sensitively documented, Benson's orientation was homosexual.

Even without a self-defining classificatory vocabulary, he could write: Somewhat ungraciously, the school's official historian wrote that "while he was at Eton he kept his pederasty and depression at bay. Was the other half of the problem equally pressing?

Indeed, could the charge be even more serious? In the twenty-first century, we are all too aware of repeated and horrific child abuse scandals in institutions, frequently perpetrated openly, and by men who were respected, even sometimes idolised.

Are we entitled to read backwards from these episodes, and confront the possibility that there was an unhealthy element in Benson's dedication to his charges? There were certainly aspects of his philosophy and practice that can give concern today. Nor is this necessarily an over-reaction of retrospective moralising: The dangers of the situation are all too obvious. And yet — the notion of Benson as a child abuser seems absurd. He devoted one hour each evening to visiting thirty boys, enough for a two-minute chat with each.

It was also an understood convention that a boy who did not wish to be disturbed could simply blow out his candle and pretend to be already asleep: A housemaster's relations with his pupils "should be paternal and not sentimental", not least because "boys are quick to notice any favouritism". That could not be said of Eton pupils.

A murky scandal was uncovered in another house in because a junior boy unburdened himself to himself to his parents about a culture of bullying, which was assumed to include sexual exploitation: In any case, it is undesirable to convict anybody of a successfully resisted tendency to malign behaviour on the basis of the absence of evidence that such behaviour ever occurred. In the whole of his life, Benson never held up a bank, but this should not be taken as proof that he continuously wrestled with a temptation to commit armed robbery.

It might be more helpful to shift the focus of the discussion, and enquire what precisely was meant when Benson and contemporaries talked of "boys". Hyam was critical of Newsome's loose employment of this key term. Primarily, Benson was romantically attracted to the former, to sixth formers and undergraduates. So long as they remained platonic, such relationships were not illegal, even in the era of the Criminal Law Amendment Act. From a modern perspective, they would be regarded as undesirable only if the older person exploited a position of authority to secure favours from a student or bestow privileges upon him.

However, considerable concern would be felt, both now and then, at any expression of sexual attraction towards young adolescents: Physical interference with pre-teenage children has aroused utter disgust in every era. Benson's attachments to handsome undergraduates may seem embarrassing, but is there any indication that he desired younger adolescents or even lusted after small children? In confronting these distasteful questions, we need to bear in mind that Benson's diary, so discursive on general matters, puts up one of Francis Turner's NO ENTRY signs when it comes to his most intimate thoughts.

By this time, he had left the Eton staff: It was a choral service, including Mendelssohn's 'Hear My Prayer'. The rendering was "delicious", but its sentiments, of farewell to sin and sorrow, "had no inner voice for me". Rather, his thoughts strayed, but he could not bring himself to chronicle his ruminations: However, a few months earlier, he had written more explicitly about an experience, an accidental episode of voyeurism.

Strolling through the Eton precinct late one May evening, returning from a dinner engagement with Stuart Donaldson, he had spotted "a boy in a nightgown" through the lighted window of a boarding house — just the sort of detached cameo observation in which he delighted, "like a window opened in heaven". The strange feature of the actual window was that it was "full of flowers". The boy placed a candle on the window ledge its brightness almost certainly obscured the peeping Benson from his viewand began to re-arrange the flowers, smiling as he did so.

Newsome saw in the incident the sadness of a man "who can see life, but not live it. Equally unclear is the age of the "boy". However, it is possible to hazard a guess.

One feature of Eton is its lack of communal dormitory life. Every boy has his own room, an arrangement that encourages individuality, sometimes extending to eccentricity. Boys may decorate their rooms, in the sense of providing their own pictures and ornaments. The youth with the candle obviously had a penchant for flowers.

This suggests a relatively senior boy, since a younger lad would probably have felt inhibited from engaging in such display, and would have been open to mockery had he festooned his room with blossom. Deductions can only be tentative, but it seems fair to suggest that, if this episode was sexual in nature, the focus of Benson's erotic impulse was at the very least well advanced into adolescence. This postulated qualification of the categorisation of Benson as homosexually inclined makes all the more incomprehensible, if not distasteful, a strained passage in Newsome's generally impressive biography.

Walking in Sussex ina few months before his death, Benson encountered two small boys, wheeling a younger brother in a primitive perambulator. In high good humour, Benson asked if they were planning to sell him, and playfully offered to purchase him for sixpence.

A century later, such banter would certainly be ill-advised, but there is nothing to suggest that Benson's comments stemmed from anything more than an elderly gentleman's joviality. Not only does it play, however unwittingly, to the hate propaganda that equates homosexuality with the abuse of small children, but it entirely distorts the nature of Benson's feelings towards young men. The fact is that he rarely encountered small boys, and there is nothing to suggest that he found them sexually exciting.

Indeed, Benson's sexual experiences seem to have been very few, and notably low-key. From the fact that both Newsome and Goldhill relate the boy-in-the-nightgown floral-window episode, it would seem that voyeurism is not a major and consistent theme in the diary.

Ardently gay, Hugh Walpole could be an unsettling companion. At lunch with him inBenson experienced "a strange thing These are not the Black Diaries of Roger Casement. He could not cope with Walpole's tempestuous emotions. In fact, he came to find the young man's homosexuality too much to bear. But the biographical focus upon "boys" — whether as small children or young men — risks becoming self-reinforcing, and needs to be widened.

Benson was reticent about committing to paper his deepest thoughts on sex. But is also possible that it does indeed represent what it purports to state: In a Freudian age, we can of course concede that all interpersonal contact contains some element of sexual appraisal, but there seems no reason to apply this insight more stringently to Benson than to anybody else. Four years earlier, the sight of "long-limbed brown-skinned girls and boys" playing on a Sussex beach had momentarily made him wish that he had a "family of jolly children".

Newsome interprets this as an expression of Benson's "voyeur element", but the inclusion of both girls and boys may indicate that his primary response was aesthetic. At Norwich Cathedral inhe noted that it was "pretty before service to see two little blue-cassocked choir-boys in the Dean's stall, finding his places.

Perhaps, but maybe he was simply struck by the charming and colourful sight of two youngsters, apparently charged with the responsible task of ensuring that that the Dean opened his prayer book at the correct page. He enjoyed the sight of choirboys, but there does not seem to be any indication that he ever tried to talk to them: There was the "beautiful, red-haired kitchen-maid" in the bishop's palace at Norwich whom he spotted inor "a bare-legged girl under a walnut-tree, driving a flock of hens with a switch", glimpsed to his delight in Somerset two years later.

He certainly did confess, "I like women better the more they approximate to men" []but this comment was more about behaviour than bodies. Yet the faint traces of ambiguity in his writing seem, if anything, to be the other way around. He was briefly interested in an undergraduate contemporary at King's, a "pretty, sensitive boy" with a "feminine" nature.

The lad was obviously old enough to be trusted among guns, and was perhaps a young teenager. When Frank Salter married, he called the bride "a little boyish-looking demoiselle", but this probably referred to the fact that she was slight and slender in build — the adjective derived from masculinity was here counter-balanced by a noun that undoubtedly spoke of femininity.

It was not that he experienced any strong heterosexual attraction. A steamy novel of left him genuinely bewildered. A wild and rather brutish pursuit of a mate? I have never felt this". At a dinner party inhe sat next to "a pretty and charming girl to whom I rather lost my heart. I was entranced and absorbed This clean fresh pretty lively modest girl would be a delightful partner". That is a pitiful confession. He was wealthy and he enjoyed such projects, but it is hard to see why he needed a large private residence.

There was little prospect that he would be ever evicted from Magdalene's Old Lodge — colleges were relaxed about the life tenure of dons in those days, and the former tenant, Newton, had died there. Benson never lived at "Howlands", as he called it: Lubbock would perhaps have smiled at Benson's assumption that it was up to the Almighty to run a celestial dating agency.

He recognised that he shared his avoidance of marriage with his siblings. I should so get to detest the ways and the physical presence of anyone with whom I lived — unless it were a simply negative clean comeliness — that I should be obsessed by it, unless saved by a very high sort of passion. Benson confronted the issue of his own possible marriage in Watersprings, published in at the time he was contemplating the building of Howlands.

Watersprings is not a great novel but, until its bizarre denouement, it is more readable than most of its author's ephemeral fantasy writing. The hero, Howard Kennedy, is a bachelor don in his forties, easily recognisable as Benson himself, while Beaufort College is very obviously Magdalene.

A.C. Benson and Cambridge: II, - Ged Martin

The plot is too close to the life story of Benson's Eton hero, William Johnson Cory, for the resemblance to be accidental. Cory, in his fifties, married the twenty year-old daughter of a neighbouring Devon clergyman, after she confessed her ambition to marry "an old clever man, good, tender and true", and bluntly informed him: Kennedy is struck by her resemblance to her brother Jack, a Beaufort undergraduate, "and the moment of realisation that he has fallen in love with her comes when he sees her dressed as a boy.

Envisage Maud Sandys as a serious but appealing young woman — "transcendental" even — and Benson's evocative prose suggests either that he was remarkably effective in plagiarising heterosexual love stories, or that he was genuinely able to generate a tender portrayal of his heroine. Insist on seeing Maud, like the Norfolk gamekeeper's son, as a boy dressed in girl's clothes, and Watersprings becomes trapped in a filter of perceived homosexuality.

But it is possible to see the novel as expressing a yearning for marriage, although what kind of marriage may remain open to definition.

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Was the author of Watersprings indicating that he was ready to pledge his troth, not to a woman but to Magdalene? There are surely enough allusions by Benson to the possibility of marriage to make it worth asking: Plenty of gay men married in that era, although it was of course not always a good idea that they should.


Sophisticated upper class women in Victorian Britain were surely aware that husbands educated at public schools had encountered same-sex experiences. When Maurice Bonham-Carter told Violet Asquith during their honeymoon that he had been "married" at Eton, she found the information sufficiently interesting to share it with a friend.

It is likely that the union between his uncle Henry Sidgwick and Eleanor Balfour was never consummated, but they constituted an affectionate and formidable partnership all the same. Their mental processes are obscure to me; I don't like their superficial ways, their mixture of emotion with reason. My own feeling is that one's duty to a friend is to encourage and uplift and compliment and believe in him.

Women, I think, when they get interested in one, have a deadly desire to improve one. They think that the privilege of friendship is to criticise; they want deference, they don't want frankness. It is rare to find a passage that is pure poppycock, but this one passes the test. Benson was obsessive in making critical comments about his friends: There were spats and squabbles aplenty with male friends too. The outburst was not a proclamation of his eternal rejection of marriage, but rather the frightened explosion of a man who had recently escaped entanglement.

An amicable association with the novelist Mary Cholmondeley had assumed frightening dimensions. She had written to him in confessing that she felt "a kind of large and predestined friendship" towards him — an initiative that certainly looked like an invitation to propose marriage. The forty year-old Benson panicked, and even contemplated asking his mother to help him evade the trap. This might not have proved an effective strategy, since Mary Benson was almost certainly a co-conspirator with her daughter-in-law elect.

But in many respects, she would have been well qualified as a mid-life bride. She was a family friend, and they had shared interests in literature. She was also three years his senior, and as her earlier novel, Red Pottage, had been denounced for immorality, she would presumably have been capable of negotiating explicit limits to marital relations.

In the event, Mary Cholmondeley took her revenge in her novel Prisoners. Wentworth Maine, the central character if hardly the hero, was both younger and physically smaller than Benson, but the author signalled the identification to her victim by attributing remarks from their confidential conversations to him. Maine was devastatingly dismissed as "a sedate, self-centred young man He claimed that celibacy was an asset to a public school housemaster, even though colleagues such as Stuart Donaldson and Edward Lyttelton not only managed to combine job with family, but almost certainly gained from their partnership with intelligent and energetic women.

Although he was occasionally conscious of loneliness, he could also declare — inin the aftermath of the Cholmondeley escapade — that "I think I love my liberty better". Inbefore the commencement of the regular diary, he had rejected hints from his parents that he should marry: When he berated himself as a "donkey" in for failing to find a partner in life, he recognised that he was "kept off it by stupid moods and fastidiousnesses.

Mary Cholmondeley was apparently taken aback by "the grim self-knowledge" he displayed in a letter warning her to keep her distance. God had not sent him a wife, "perhaps in pity for a frail creature of his hand, who might have had to bear that tedious fate!

My discussion is no doubt inadequate, but it can be summarised reasonably succinctly. Benson's orientation was homosexual. He was romantically attracted to young men — sixth-formers and undergraduates — but there is little or nothing to suggest that he was a threat to younger boys. There are problems of interpretation in using the diary to understand his sexuality, since it was an area of his life that he explicitly refused to explore.

By contrast, he had something of an obsession with the concept of beauty, and in particular with his own feeling that he could witness beautiful sights but not truly experience them. If he often wrote appreciative descriptions of boys and young men, it should be remembered that he also sometimes wrote of girls in terms of artless admiration. He was not impervious to feminine charm, and it seems a brutal strategy to assume that the young women who occasionally delighted him were, in his heart of hearts, transvestite boys.

He contemplated the theoretical possibility of marriage — or, perhaps more accurately, the acquisition of marital status — often enough to make it merit consideration as an agenda item in considering his life. His homosexuality no doubt disinclined him to seek a bride, but comparison with contemporary gays suggests that it might not have represented an inflexible barrier — although Benson's distaste for all forms of sexual expression and activity would have been a larger handicap.

The real barrier that prevented him from seeking a partner in life — of either gender — was his awareness of the fragility of his mental health, his reluctance, as he put it, to invite another human being into "the torture chamber that I call my life".

Throughout his final seven years at Eton, fromBenson was called upon by Windsor Castle from time to time to churn out hymns and odes for royal occasions. As a master at nearby Eton, he was readily available. He belonged to the 'establishment', in the most literal sense as son of the archbishop, and, perhaps above all, he was not Alfred Austin, the unregarded Poet Laureate appointed earlier that year when the Queen refused to accept either Swinburne or Kipling.

Occasionally, as with his ode on the Anglo-Japanese alliance, we encounter a versifier desperately searching for something to say, but basically, Benson was a clever wordsmith, who frequently took only a few minutes to supply the requested material.

Much of the earlier verse had hailed the return of peace at the conclusion of the South African War. The final section was in fact a celebration of the actual crowning of Edward VII, culminating in the stirring words: In his later years, he did his best to distance himself from "wider still and wider," even at the risk of offending his mass patriotic readership.

Benson disliked vulgar manifestations of patriotic enthusiasm: He recorded without comment a complaint by the sister of the Earl of Glasgow, who had served as Governor of New Zealand, that she had been forced to meet doctors and dentists at the dinner table of Government House Wellington.