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Meet the Hutterites--a small religious colony in rural Montana who holds desperately to their sacred traditions while fighting the modern temptations of the outside world. Anthony Hofer, Bertha Hofer, Carver Hofer. King Colony is made up of 59 people and they are almost all related. return is used to calculate federal income tax and credits. Corporations that you file your T2 Corporation Income Tax Return online. To view your Debt parking – For foreign currency debt that meets the Crown corporations, Hutterite colonies, and corporations . North American Industry Classification System ( NAICS). American Colony: Meet the Hutterites · College for Claudia? Four Wheeler Race · American Colony: Meet the Hutterites · Four Wheeler Race.
It had more energy resources. It had the second biggest population in the western world saving only Russia. But the American people as a whole were quite ambivalent about whether or not they actually wanted to become one of the great powers that arbitrated the destinies of the world at large. I think that Wilson had, even in this vision of America as a moral beacon in the world, as a city upon a hill, this sense that Americans had something to give to the world. Germany was led by a kaiser, Russia a tsar.
Great Britain and France, two democracies, jealously guarded far-flung colonial empires. The assassination of an obscure Austro-Hungarian aristocrat by a Serbian nationalist had provided a pretext to unleash imperial rivalries that were breaking the continent apart.
Germany and its ally, Austria Hungary, declared war on Serbia and her ally, Russia. Germany then invaded France — through neutral Belgium — and Russia.
Britain came to the aid of, the French and the Belgians and suddenly, millions of men were fighting a war whose very purpose seemed hard to comprehend. What were they thinking?
They had so much going for them. Europe was the most prosperous part of the world, the most powerful part of the world. It had had extraordinary progress. It had a century of almost unbroken peace, and suddenly they blundered into this war.
Almost from the outset of the war, Woodrow Wilson was trying to find diplomatic solutions. He believed if all the heads of state could sit at a table and confer, they could probably have ended this war. As he faced the greatest international crisis of his presidency, Woodrow Wilson was falling apart.
In a small bedroom on the second floor of the White House, his wife Ellen lay dying. They had been married for 29 years, and she had borne him three daughters, standing by him during his dramatic rise to the White House. Two days after war broke out, at five in the afternoon, she died. Here is the president of the United States who is so bereft he is actually contemplating giving up the office.
He does not know how he can go on without this woman, who really sacrificed everything she could for him. He sat next to the casket during a sleepless train ride back to her family home in Georgia. For the first time in decades, Woodrow Wilson was facing the future alone. The son of a Scottish Presbyterian minister from Virginia, he was a bookish young man with a delicate constitution who became a successful lawyer and scholar of American government.
He was a former professor, a former college president and the governor of New Jersey. He had a meteoric rise in politics and in an age of oratory, he was a very fine speaker. Woodrow Wilson was the most religious president we ever had.
Woodrow Wilson is a man who got on his knees twice a day and prayed. He read scripture every night. He said grace before every meal.
His faith informed everything he ever said, everything he ever thought, everything he ever did. An idealistic Democratic crusader, Wilson had spent his first two years in office driving through Congress a historic set of progressive reforms. His penchant for soaring rhetoric masked a pragmatic, and often ruthless, politician. He was also the first Democrat from the South to be elected president since Reconstruction. Almost overnight, thousands of promising civil service jobs that had been a path of upward mobility for African Americans were now open to whites only.
Wilson felt that forward thinking white people were really best positioned to see to the well being of African Americans. And I think he felt confident that at some point African Americans would be able to be incorporated into the larger civic and democratic body in some way.
He makes almost no effort to bring African Americans into any role in the government and in fact takes so many steps to alienate them that many African Americans who thought he would be a progressive on race become bitterly disappointed in him. Woodrow Wilson is the only United States president who was born in a country that had lost a war, the Confederate States of America. He carried that with him.
He believes in democratic values, liberal values, he believes in peace.
American Colony: Meet the Hutterites (TV Series – ) - IMDb
On August 18th, Wilson emerged from his grieving long enough to issue a proclamation. America is not a monolith. America is composed of a great many different communities. Take New York City.
You had Irish who had no desire to go over and fight for the British king. You had Russian Jews who had no desire to go over and fight for the Tsar. You had German-American immigrants and Austrian-American immigrants who had no desire to go over and fight against their country.
He thinks America has something to teach everyone. Part of it is ego. Wilson believes himself able to deliver these democratic practices to the global stage. He sees himself as well equipped to be this person.
Ambassador Page saw little chance that America could stay detached from the great conflict that was shaking the world to its foundations. The day war broke out, the impeccably tailored American war correspondent Richard Harding Davis settled into his first class cabin on board a ship bound for France, and enjoyed a cold glass of champagne.
American Colony: Meet the Hutterites
Davis was perhaps the most famous journalist of his day, and the war promised to be the biggest story of his already legendary career. He had made a name for himself reporting for the newspapers owned by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, filing dispatches from war zones around the world.
His vivid reports of the exploits of the Rough Riders in Cuba had helped catapult the young Theodore Roosevelt to national renown. Now Americans were counting on Davis to bring them news of the shocking developments in Europe. While he was crossing the Atlantic in the first week of August,German troops continued their invasion of neutral Belgium, rushing to encircle Paris and defeat the French and the British before the huge Russian armies to the east could mobilize.
The German war plans called for them to defeat France first, within a short period of time, and then turn those armies on the Russians. The German army was well aware that its task was to arrive in Paris 42 days…not 43 days…42 days exactly after the invasion of Belgium. And the population in Belgium and northern France was not going to stand in the way. By August 17th, as hundreds of thousands of Belgian refugees were streaming away from the advancing German army, Davis had commandeered a motorcar and was headed in the opposite direction.
He managed to find his way to Brussels to witness German forces entering the Belgian capital. The entrance of the German army into Brussels has lost all human quality. No longer was it regiments of men marching but something uncanny, inhuman, a force of nature. This was a machine, endless, tireless, with the delicate organization of a watch and the brute power of a steam roller.
For three days and three nights the column of gray, with 50, thousand bayonets and 50, lances, with gray transport wagons, … gray cannon, like a river of steel, cut Brussels in two. He described the columns going on for days marching in perfect step with each other. And I think it was jaw-dropping. But the news from Belgium turned more disturbing with each passing day.
Racing to keep to their invasion timetable, the Germans ruthlessly put down any resistance. Civilians were mowed down with machine guns; 14, buildings were deliberately destroyed. Fifteen days into the invasion, German soldiers arrived at the Belgian city of Louvain, a center of culture for centuries. Then, they burned it to the ground. At Louvain it was war upon the defenceless, war upon churches, colleges, shops of milliners and lace-makers: At Louvain that night the Germans were like men after an orgy.
They also crossed a line for his editors. Six thousand Belgian civilians were killed. The Belgians would say murdered, in the course of the war, not one of them was a combatant. That was the price the German high command knew that they had to pay in order to get to Paris in forty-two days.
In just a few short weeks, Richard Harding Davis had abandoned any pretense to neutrality. Were the conflict in Europe a fair fight, the duty of every American would be to keep on the side-lines and preserve an open mind. But it is not a fair fight.
A man who would now be neutral would be a coward. Volunteers — Part One Narrator: On August 25th,a hastily organized group of American volunteers set off through the streets of Paris for the train station. The men had just enlisted in the French army. Still wearing their rumpled street clothes, they hardly looked like soldiers. There is a generation of Americans, particularly elite Americans who believed that with this elite status came the obligation to take risks for humanity.
Now this was a totally romantic notion, but it inspired thousands of Americans to drop out of college, to quit their jobs. They felt a personal responsibility to address what was the largest human crisis of their times. Most of the well-heeled men were from elite colleges. Many of them had been drifting around Europe when the war broke out.
There were painters and professors, medical students and mining engineers, a big-game hunter, a chef and a race-car driver. There are those Americans who believe that we should make an impact on the battlefield and with the government reluctant to do so, individuals decide to do so. We have a river of people crossing the Atlantic to join the allied army, to serve as ambulance drivers as aid workers, as nurses, as doctors.
A lot of them truly loved France and they felt this was a war of civilization. They were after a kind of glory, even immortality. A real sense of wanting to sacrifice yourself for a greater cause.
The French government was stunned by the wave of volunteers — more than 35, from 49 different nations. The German army had swept through Belgium and was driving towards Paris. Every able-bodied man who could handle a rifle had been rushed to the front, including 5, French reservists who arrived in taxi cabs. At its head was a year old Harvard graduate and aspiring poet named Alan Seeger, who had been living in Paris when war was declared.
The notion of military service as a kind of a test of character, a test of I am happy and full of excitement over the wonderful days that are ahead. It was such a comfort to receive your letter and know that you approved of my action. Be sure that I shall play the part well for I was never in better health nor felt my manhood more keenly.
Seeger joined the French Foreign Legion, a brigade famous for its ferocity and for taking in anyone willing to fight, and die, for France. In its ranks he met men like Victor Chapman, a fellow Harvard graduate who had given up his architectural studies in Paris to volunteer, and Eugene Bullard, who had escaped the brutal racism of Georgia by stowing away for Europe when he was seventeen.
Once on the continent Bullard had worked as a panhandler, an actor in a traveling comedy troupe, and a boxer. The Legion put the Americans through a crash course in basic training, and they joined a war that now numbered millions of combatants on both sides. In the s, of these members migrated to what is now South Dakota, and approximately half settled on three communal farms. The relationships among these ancestors are unknown, and some of them may have been related The three original South Dakota colonies have given rise to the three major subdivisions of the modern Hutterite population, the Schmiedeleut, Dariusleut and Leherleut.
Members of each subdivision have remained reproductively isolated from each other since The subjects of our study are Schmiedeleut Hutterites who live in nine colonies in South Dakota and are descendants of 64 of the 90 Hutterite ancestors.
The individuals in this study are related to each other in a single, person, generation pedigree with only 64 founders The Hutterites offer several advantages for complex trait mapping.
First, the limited number of ancestors should minimize genetic heterogeneity. That is, the number of alleles influencing variation in complex phenotypes should be reduced compared with outbred populations. Second, the relatively recent origins of the Hutterites results in extensive linkage disequilibrium LDallowing the use of genome-wide association-based tests for localizing disease genes.
Third, the Hutterites live communally. Of particular interest, smoking is prohibited and all meals are prepared and eaten in communal kitchens 18 All colonies use traditional recipes, which are high in saturated fat, protein and sodium and high in energy intake 26 Men and women participate in traditional gender roles on the colony, and individuals retire at age 45, after which their lifestyle is relatively sedentary This communal lifestyle ensures that environmental risk factors, including diet, are remarkably uniform.
Such homogeneity should reduce the confounding effects of environmental risk factors and enhance the role of genetic variation on disease risk.
Furthermore, Hutterites living in three South Dakota colonies had elevated weight and blood pressure and died an average of 10 years younger compared with a control population living in Sioux Falls We previously estimated the heritability h2 of TG in the Hutterites as 0.
However, estimates in the Hutterites more closely reflect the genetic component than previous estimates because the confounding effects of household environment are minimized in the Hutterites, as relationships between all individuals in the person pedigree are considered Thus, heritability of TG in the Hutterites may actually be higher than in other populations.
Here we report the results of a genome-wide scan for TG in the Hutterites, using two homozygosity-by-descent HBD mapping methods that take advantage of the extensive inbreeding in the population and consider the genealogical relationships between all pairs of individuals We identified two genomic regions that were associated with TG levels and met genome-wide levels for significance.
Nonetheless, lipids and body mass index BMI were elevated, on average, even in the younger age groups Table 1. The distribution of TG in the sample is shown in Figure 1. This method tests for association with HBD across all alleles at a locus, and is therefore a test of linkage. This method tests for associations with HBD for specific alleles at each locus Table 2. Both D2S and D2S lie within the most significant linkage peak, and the IFNA microsatellite locus lies within the second most significant linkage peak on 9p Figure 2.
In all of these cases, HBD for the significant allele at these loci were associated with low TG levels. The genome scan was repeated using age2, or age2 and BMI, in addition to age and gender, as covariates, similar to other studies 1012 — Including age2 in the model increased the estimate of h2 to 0.
Including age2 in the ASHBD analysis also had little effect on the significant associations data not shown ; however adding BMI reduced the significance of the associations with both 2q and 9p loci. No new loci reached genome-wide significance by either method.
Only one previous genome screen identified a major genome-wide significant locus influencing TG levels, which was on 15q in Mexican-Americans LOD 3. Neither our study nor six other genome screens detected linkage to this region. Other genome screens in different population samples reported evidence for suggestive linked loci on chromosomes 2p 137q 10129q 1712q 1613q 1517q 16 and 20 None of these loci appear to have strong effects in the Hutterites.
Overall, there is little consensus among studies or between our studies in the Hutterites and the previously reported genome scans in Mexican American families 12Pima Indian families 13Framingham families 10Rochester Minnesota families 15German myocardial infarction families 17obese families 16hypertensive sib pairs 14or Finnish familial combined hyperlipidemia families It should be noted, however, that our methods only test under a recessive genetic model.
Thus, although we had increased power to detect recessive alleles, we may have had little power to detect dominant or additive alleles Nonetheless, we detected two chromosomal regions with major effects on serum TG levels in the Hutterites, neither of which was detected in other genome scans. Although founder populations have been valuable for mapping single-gene, Mendelian traits, their utility for mapping complex phenotypes, such as TG levels, has been proposed but not proven. In theory, the reduced genetic heterogeneity and increased LD should facilitate mapping of genes that contribute to phenotypes with multifactorial etiologies 32 — In addition, the relatively homogeneous environment that characterizes most founder populations should reduce the non-genetic factors that contribute to variation.
The Hutterites in particular are exposed to a very uniform environment. Not only do the Hutterites have relatively small interpersonal differences in diet, but their high-fat diet is both universal and lifelong. Further, after age 45 these individuals have minimal physical activity. Thus, genotypes influencing TG levels should be highly penetrant because nearly all individuals are exposed to a high-risk lifestyle. This may be reflected in the young age at which elevated cholesterol and TG levels are observed in the Hutterites Table 1.
In this context, it is particularly interesting that the two most significant findings in this study were associations with low TG levels, suggesting that homozygosity for alleles at these loci may protect against high TG levels even when exposed to a high-risk lifestyle.
If so, linkages to these regions might not be detected in studies of families ascertained on the basis of high TG or cholesterol levels or the presence of cardiovascular disease 111415 Nonetheless, identifying alleles that protect against elevated TG levels, particularly in the presence of a high-risk lifestyle, could have significant implications for both population screening and identifying novel therapeutic targets.
Our strongest linkage and association are with loci on chromosome 2q.