Leary, M. R. Sociometer theory and the pursuit of relational value: Getting to the root of self-esteem. European Review of Social Psychology, Sociometer theory is a theory put forward by Mark Leary in , proposing that humans have evolved a form of psychological meter, or gauge. Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is a psychological gauge of the . in which people appear to seek to enhance their self-esteem (Leary et al., ).

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In addition, they may be more inclined to respect themselves, because they feel these possessions reflect their identity. Personality and Individual Differences30, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology14, Back Institutional Login Please choose from an option shown below.

Self-Verification Theory Chapter The invalidity of disclaimers about the effects of social feedback on self-esteem. Social Anxiety, Embarrassment, Hurt Feelings I have been interested in how people react in situations in which they are concerned that others will not accept them as much as they desire.


For example, we have been studying egoic overreactions to inconsequential evenhts, self-compassion, mindfulness, leaty processes involved in hypo-egoic self-regulation. I have been particularly interested in how behavior and emotion are affected by people’s concerns about others’ impressions and evaluations of them.

When self esteem is low, individuals experience a profound urge to be embraced, not rejected, and for example might attempt to lose weight rapidly, provoking some eating disorders.

Materialism Rejection or exclusion does not only diminish self-esteem but also increases materialism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology58, Determinants of belonging Many cues and circumstances can instil thepry sense of belonging.


To illustrate, shame might elicit behaviors that curb social conflict-submissive displays such as bowing the head or avoiding gaze Gilbert, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology81, Shackelford argued the sociometer hypothesis does not specify which forms of rejection are especially likely to dent the self esteem of individuals.

In addition to research that bridges topics of interest to social and clinical-counseling psychologists, I wrote a book with Rowland Miller on “Social Psychology and Dysfunctional Behavior” edited a volume with Robin Kowalski on “The Social Psychology of Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Get recognition for it.

The sociometer hypothesis / smoss2 – Sicotests

Other negative emotions, such as sadness and anxiety, thekry not as contingent upon the social implications of these stressful contexts. Self and Identity8, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Need-to-Belong Theory Chapter Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: In addition, some evidence seems to contradict the sociometer hypothesis.

From the perspective of the sociometer hypothesis, rejection, according to Pyszczynski, Greenberg, and Sociometsrshould elicit behaviors that cultivate rather than compromise relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin36, Furthermore, if participants completed a task that boosts implicit self-esteem–in which they sociomster the word I before leqry series of positive adjectives-this effect of rejection on materialism diminished.

More recently, my students and I have been studying the negative emotional and behavioral effects of self-reflection as well as processes that may counteract the “curse” of the self. First, in their study, they discovered the self esteem of participants was especially likely to socimoeter after they imagined themselves performing behaviors in which they felt they could be excluded or rejected by someone else-such as cheating on an exam, yelling at someone, or causing a traffic accident.


The difference being that the control group of students chose if they 1 wanted to interact with the person or 2 dissociated from the person. One of these behaviors is the accrual of materials. If you can’t join them, beat them: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology53, The objective of the study was to pick groups for an activity based on the evaluations given by the students.

Among other things, people who are extremely worried about others’ evaluations of them experience social anxiety, behave in an inhibited and withdrawn manner, and engage in self-presentational tactics designed to protect their social image. When the body is exposed to some pathogen or injury, immune cells are infused into the infected region.

Social Identity Theory Chapter A great deal of human behavior is, in part, determined or constrained lesry people’s concerns with others’ impressions and evaluations of them.

A low self esteem, therefore, elicits behaviors that are intended to preserve relationships and preclude or accommodate rejection.

Specifically, after people feel rejected or excluded, their self-esteem declines. Photo of Mark Leary File name: