This text explains in detail the meaning of death. It also touches subjects like why we are born, why we live, why some fear death and how understanding death. Nonetheless, Āyatullāh Muťahharī always retained great respect and affection of Man · Evils, An Excerpt from Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari’s Divine Justice. Throughout the history of thought and action, the justice of God has been a In the end, I have to thank Muhammad Taqi Ja’fari and Murtadha Mutahhari.

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I did a quick search and found this http: Thus, such things cannot be discussed as independent things. Similarly, whiteness and blackness assuming that colours are actual things are real attributes. That is, everything in itself is good for itself; if it is evil, it is evil for something else, just like snake poison is good for the snake and bad for other things.

Sign up for a new account in our community. Divine justice requires that these vacuums be filled. A wolf is evil for itself? Here, it must be said that the evilness of snake poison is in its for-other being, not in its in- itself being. Non-being is nothing and emptiness and cannot occupy a particular place side by side with being.

Number and dimension are of the category of quantity, and smallness and bigness are of the category of relation. If we call a beast of prey evil, it is not because its peculiar essence is the essence of evil, but because it is a cause of death and loss for something else.

Death, An Excerpt from Murtadha Mutahhari’s Divine Justice

What Rumi mentions in this verse is a combination of the two issues; the first verse mentions the first issue, and the second verse the second one. The example of being and non-being is like that of the sun and shadow. In this verse, Rumi has confused two issues. Only nonmaterial beings have absolute being. In reality, the dualists wished to exonerate God of evil, and ended up charging Him with having an associate.

It is a mistake to assume that evil things are a specific group of things whose essence consists of evil justtice in which there is no mutahgari and good things in their turn are another category separate and differentiated from mutahuari things. In terms of the relation between cause and effect, usually those very actual deficiencies, meaning poverty and ignorance, become causes of things like bacteria, floods, earthquakes, war, and so on, which are evils of the second type, meaning that they are beings that are evil inasmuch as they are a source of deficiencies and non-being.

Thus the goodness of a law with respect to ensuring freedoms is relative to other supposable laws which are less able to protect and ensure freedoms than it is. But without doubt that which is real and actual is the innate and essential existence of every thing; relative existences are and suppositional and conventional things, and since they are relative and suppositional, they are not real, meaning that they do not actually have a place in the order of existence or possess actual being for it to be debated why this existence— meaning relative existence—has been given to them.


Every thing is good for itself; if it is evil, it is evil for something else. In order to combat these type of evils, we must first combat the first type of evils and fill vacuums like ignorance, inability, and poverty, so that evils of the second type don’t come about.

Being one, two, three, four, and so on are real things; but being first, second, third, fourth, and so on are relative things. A thing that is white is white without it having to be compared to anything else, and a thing that is black is black in itself, and it doesn’t need to be compared to something else for it to be black.

For example, knowledge is a perfection for a human being which the innate human capacity demands and moves toward, and, for this reason, deserves. This too is in comparison to other watermelons. What we have discussed so far has been about disparities and discriminations.

Good and evil things in the world are not two separate and differentiated types from one another in the sense that, for example, inanimate objects or minerals are separate from plants and plants are separate from animals and create particular groups. For example, we say that an apple or a pair is small, and another apple or pair is big.

Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari | Books on Islam and Muslims |

Neither can we deny the existence of these things, nor their being evil. These two points comprise the second and third part of our discussion regarding evils, which we indicated earlier. It is obvious that the second case is correct. Earlier we promised that out of these four typesof objections, we would discuss the first under the heading “Discriminations” and the remaining three under sivine heading “Evils.

In nature, good and evil are bound and mixed together in such a way that it is as if they have been compounded together, not a chemical compound, but a deeper and more subtle compounding, of the type of the compounding of being and non-being.

If a beast of prey were to exist but not to prey [on other things], that is, if it were not to cause loss of life for anything, it would not be evil, and if it exists and loss of life takes place, it is evil. Divine justice demands that such things not exist so that their effects, which are deficiencies, also not exist. The answer we present in this book contains the same elements that are mentioned in books of Islamic philosophy—especially the books of Mulla Sadra—and both answers are essentially the same.


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In contrast, a relative attribute is one in which supposing [the existence of] a thing and an attribute is not sufficient in order for that thing to be described by that attribute, unless some third thing is supposed that can serve as a basis for comparison and relation. And many other attributes are the same way, such as quantity and dimension.

Similarly, oppression is evil for the oppressor as well since it contradicts his higher potentials; if the oppressor possessed no higher power and potential than that of anger, oppression would not be bad for him, or rather it wouldn’t have any meaning with respect to him. Knowledge is a reality and an actual perfection, but ignorance is not a reality.

If ignorance were an actual reality, acquiring knowledge—since it would be alongside a loss of ignorance—would simply be the changing of one attribute for another, just as a body loses one form and quality and acquires a different form and quality. The second part has become clear in the course of the first part and will become clearer in what follows, and the third part requires greater discussion, and we will discuss it in depth in the next section. The answer is that there is no more than one type of being in the universe, and that is the existence of good things; evils are all of the form of non-being, and non-being is not a created thing.

The dualists have been unable to harmonize belief in the unlimited power and unchallenged will of God and His uncontested decree with belief in His Wisdom, Justice, and Goodness. We think the matter is important enough to be given attention, and of course we will try to explain the matter as simply as possible.

But later philosophers have analyzed it better and to a greater extent; and since we consider this point to be correct and fundamental, we mention it here to the extent appropriate to this book. In other words, every thing possesses an innate existence and an extrinsic existence i. Don’t be quick to judge; neither do we want to deny the existence of blindness, deafness, injustice, poverty, sickness, and so on; nor do we wish to deny their evilness; nor do we wish to deny the obligation of human beings and ignore the role of man in changing the world and perfecting society.