J Vol. XIV No. 3 September Dependency Theory: A Review Article. James L. Dietz. Both Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Andre Gunder Frank have been. something that has internal origin. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his. “dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as. In response to this theory, Andre Gunder Frank in propounded his “ dependency theory which saw the world’s nations as divided into a core of wealthy.

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It was used to explain the causes of overurbanizationa theory that urbanization rates outpaced industrial growth in several developing countries.

Andre Gunder Frank & Dependency Theory

Despite extensive investment and aid, some LDCs have experienced little or no economic growth. It is often under special tariff protection or other government concessions. First World countries exploited the colonies for cheap food, raw materials and labour.

A Quantitative, Cross-National Analysis. Neoliberalists would argue that it is mainly internal factors drpendency lead to underdevelopment, not exploitation — They argue that it is corruption within governments poor governance that is mainly to blame for the lack of development in many African countries. TAGS brettkavanaugh canada china chomsky democratic democrats donald trump donaldtrump economics ethics europe europeanunion government hamas immigration impeachment internationalpolitics iran iraq isis islam israel marijuana middleeast middle east nj northkorea obama palestine philosophy politicaleconomy politics publicpolicy putin republicans russia saudiarabia senate shia supremecourt syria trump un vynil yemen.

The core nations are able to exploit the peripheral nations because of their superior economic and military power. Views Read Edit View history.

He writes about political trends and demographics, the role of the media in politics, comparative politics, political theory, and the domestic and international political economy.

He argues that factors such as civil wars, ethnic tensions and being land-locked with poor neighbours are correlated with underdevelopment. Archived from the original PDF on 17 March They were led to the position that dependency is not a relation between commodity exporters and industrialised countries, but between countries with different degrees of industrialisation.


The theory was popular in the s and s as a criticism of modernization theory, which was falling increasingly out of favor because of continued widespread poverty in much of the world. It is argued that, at this stage, the role of unequal exchange in the entire relationship of dependency cannot be underestimated.

The Latin American Structuralist and the American Marxist schools had significant differences but agreed on some basic points: However, Frank believes that sooner or later, the West would reassert its control. Dependency theorists hold that short-term spurts of growth notwithstanding, long-term growth in the periphery will be imbalanced and unequal, and will tend towards high negative current account balances.

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theoryan earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today’s underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investmenttechnology transfersand closer integration into the world market.

Moreover, the MNCs are not accountable for their actions in law. They cited the partly successful attempts at industrialisation in Latin America around that time Argentina, Brazil, Mexico as evidence for this hypothesis. Most colonies have achieved political independence but their economies still tend to be based on exporting cash crops and raw materials to the West.

Following colonialism, many of the ex-colonies were dependent for their export earnings on primary products, mostly agricultural cash crops such as Coffee or Tea which have very little value in themselves — It is the processing of those raw materials which adds value to them, and the processing takes place mainly in the West. All of this resulted in huge social changes in the colonial regions: For example, it is estimated that for every British pound lent to LDCs, 70 pence is spent in the UK or spent on projects which primarily employ expertise from the donor country.

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With the economic growth of India and some East Asian economies, dependency theory has lost some of its former influence. Development depends on a population’s producing more than it needs for bare subsistence a surplus.


Other approaches International ethics Historical sociology Regime theory State cartel theory Geopolitics. The neo-Marxist dependency theory rejects the view that the people of LDCs are responsible for the failure of their societies to develop.

On the other hand, Frank believes that holding such views creates numerous misconceptions and prevents an accurate view of contemporary development from emerging. Colonialism destroyed local economies which were self-sufficient and independent and replaced them with plantation mono-crop economies which were geared up to export one product to the mother country.

Dependency theory – Sociology Revision

Fajnzybler has made a distinction between systemic or authentic competitiveness, which is the ability to compete based on higher productivity, and spurious competitiveness, which is based on low wages. Therefore, any over-production or fall in Western demand can have a severe effect upon LDC economies.

At the forefront of this type of exploitation are the multinational companies MNCs. Despite the rapid development of Brazil, Frank argues that Brazil will not break out of the cycle of underdevelopment due to its continued reliance on the more developed nations as a way to export its resources.

Dependency theory – Wikipedia

Dependency theory no longer has many proponents as an overall theory, though some writers have argued for its continuing relevance as a conceptual orientation to the global division of wealth. Development economics World systems theory.

Philosophy, Anarco-Syndicalism, and Truth to Power. He believes that the end of the Bretton Woods international financial agreements in the early s considerably strengthened the United States’ position because it removed some constraints on their financial actions. A level sociology revision — education, families, research methods, crime and deviance and more! Depejdency is now a rising economic power.