Zelda Fitzgerald: Love and Madness | Americans in Paris, Fall
y grandfather F. Scott Fitzgerald would have been years old this ''a Scott and Zelda'' refers to a close but rivalrous relationship between But I have been the secondhand beneficiary of Scott's pointed advice about style. She was born Zelda Sayre to Anthony and Minnie Sayre who lived on 6 There Zelda developed a relationship with Edouard Jozan, a young floor of Highland Hospital awaiting electroshock therapy when a fire broke out. Sometimes Madness Is Wisdom: Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald: A Marriage [Kendall and '40s including electro-convulsive therapy and injections of horse blood.
A belated effort to became a ballerina in Paris had driven her to anorexia and obsessive behaviour, but Scott's chief reasons for having her committed were sexual; she declared an attraction to her ballet teacher, and, in the asylum, was caught masturbating. Her sexual frankness conflicted with his anxieties and pruderies, especially with his own fascinated dread of homosexuality. Scott was a control freak who wanted to arrange and order every detail of her life, as he would also for their daughter, but he also did his best to find her the most advanced care.
Zelda's doctors included many of the famous names of psychiatric medicine of her day, but their understanding and treatment of women's psychological conflicts was lumbered with traditional expectations that healthy, normal women should be content to limit themselves to secondary domestic roles.
Zelda was forced to restrict or give up her dancing, painting and writing and to submit to versions of the rest cure that made her worse. From the beginning, Zelda perceived her treatment as "a sort of castration". Scott, meanwhile, was not institutionalised for his drinking. Moreover, he insisted that she was the real drunkard, while he needed drink in order to work. The biggest crisis in their marriage and its tenuous balance of power came inwhen Zelda wrote an autobiographical novel, Save Me the Waltz, drawing on the same material with which he was struggling in Tender is the Night.
Scott was outraged that Zelda should presume to poach on his territory. He wrote in fury to his publisher Max Perkins, to whom she had sent the manuscript, telling him not to publish. In Maythe Fitzgeralds sat down with Zelda's doctor for a debate on the subject which was transcribed by a stenographer and ran to pages. The transcripts, Cline says, read more like a trial than a negotiation. Scott demanded "unconditional surrender" - he accused Zelda of being an opportunist and called her "a third-rate writer" and a "useless society woman" with an "amazonian and lesbian" personality.
She wanted a divorce and stressed her need to be independent. In a journal entry outlining his divorce strategy if Zelda insisted on continuing to write fiction, Scott noted: Play suppressnovel delaypictures suppresscharacter showerschild detachschedule disorient to cause troubleno typing.
Beautiful - and damned: the tumultuous marriage of F Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda
Probable result - new breakdown. Zelda's letters are saturated with the need to find meaningful work and to support herself. But Scott could not consent, and gradually Zelda developed symptoms of religious mania and suicidal depression.
In the late s, when Scott was too hard up to pay her hospital fees, he moved her to Highlands Hospital in North Carolina, where Dr Robert Carroll believed in vigorous physical activity and reprogramming rebellious women through electro-shock treatments into "wholesome" wives and mothers. His experiences in the film world, while frustrating Milford, The flashbacks, so harshly criticized when the novel first appeared, also add to the sensation of being in a film.
In short, the structure of the novel and the subject matter it dealt with reflected the original and groundbreaking vein the author sought to achieve. In addition to the narrative style of Tender Is the Night, the book makes numerous references to the film industry. It is not an autobiographical tale, in the sense meant by Philippe Lejeune Therefore, the above-mentioned autobiographical elements can only be confirmed by extratextual means.
It is generally known that Fitzgerald took inspiration from his own life when writing a good part of his stories and novels. In This Side of Paradisehis protagonist Amory Blaine was a receptacle for the ideas and dreams of the writer when he was studying at Princeton Bruccoli, Tender Is the Night is a more mature novel whose main characters, Dick and Nicole, represent Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, respectively, with all the emotional baggage they had accumulated over the years.
The first was published in and the second in As we will discuss later, Mrs. Fitzgerald was admitted to a sanatorium in Switzerland in By that time, both of them had already engaged in extramarital relationships. This circumstance was reflected in the plots of the two books. It was they who told the couple about the fine qualities of the French Riviera and it was to them that the author dedicated his novel: During that period, Scott was working on The Great Gatsby and Zelda spent much of her time alone and bored.
Among them was Edouard Jozan, with whom Zelda apparently had a romance in Milford, Fitzgerald was not the only one to have a romantic relationship outside their marriage, as Scott also met several women with whom he had romances.
One of the most important was the actress Lois Moran. She was completely dazzled by the Fitzgeralds as a couple and the parallels between Lois Moran and the figure of Rosemary Hoyt are quite obvious. Apparently, the fascination was mutual, which mostly likely irked Zelda. Curiously, in the novel, Dick Diver turns down the chance to do a screen test to make a movie with Rosemary Fitzgerald, Zelda also recounted both affairs in her novel Save Me the Waltz.
However, in his books, the author presented the subject of adultery as something degrading. He must have had difficulty with his relationship at the end of his life with Sheilah Graham, who he met induring his final stay in Hollywood, where he died in They never lived together and he never separated from Zelda Donaldson, Other biographical elements worth noting are related to the relationship and family situation of both couples-real and fictitious.
Both Fitzgerald and Diver married rich, popular and sought-after women who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Emotional jealousy was a significant presence in the relationship of both couples. It is possible that the bad relationship between Scott Fitzgerald and his sister-in-law Rosalind Sayre Donaldson, Life experiences shared by the two writers generated major conflicts because both intended to use the same experiences, with different interpretations, in producing their works.
Many shared experiences were repeated in the work of both writers. Scott became angry when he saw that Zelda had used episodes which he also wanted to include in his stories or novels. In addition, he published texts by her as if they were solely his or they put both of their names to works that had been created by Zelda alone, probably with the excuse that he was paid better as a writer. The disagreements resulting from the use of their private life for fictional purposes made an appearance early in their romantic relationship Milford, Zelda had begun to devote all of her energies to dance inwhen she was On her return to the United States inafter her first psychiatric admission, she gave up ballet but continued her literary work.
The death of her father resulted in a relapse and on February 12, she was admitted to the Phipps Clinic in Baltimore. Three months earlier, she had begun writing an autobiographical novel in Montgomery.
She finished it a few weeks after returning from her stay at the clinic Milford, As indicated earlier, this novel was titled Save Me the Waltz. When Scott found out, he was furious. He recalled having read Zelda a good part of what he had already finished for Tender Is the Night and at that time he was not sure to what extent she had used his ideas, whether consciously or unconsciously Donaldson, Zelda, on the other hand, had a strong desire to become a productive person and not be an invalid for the rest of her life.
She wanted to have a profession and be financially independent. She knew that Scott was not going to like her using the material he was also including, but at the end of the day, how could either one of them claim exclusive rights to it?
In the end, Save Me the Waltz was published after being reviewed by Scott. It tells the story of Alabama Beggs, a Southern beauty raised in a well-to-do family. One year after finishing Save Me the Waltz, Zelda planned to write a novel about madness.
Fitzgerald raised concerns to his wife, saying that she should not use the same material in her writing: Zelda never published another novel and they never divorced. In spite of everything, the inscription on the gravestone under which both of their remains rest contains the final line of The Great Gatsby: It was to the past that both writers returned time and again to produce their literary legacy.
For example, it is possible to assert that Dick Diver is inspired by the figure of Jung, and that Dohmler is reminiscent of Bleuler. However, these similarities seem to reflect a very elaborate narrative strategy that enabled him to construct his characters following a very precise method.
Zelda Fitzgerald - Wikipedia
However, although Dick Diver contains much of Scott Fitzgerald himself, as we have already indicated, there can be no doubt that this character may also be considered an alter ego of Jung in the novel, making him especially complex. The biographical parallels between the two are quite striking: We are told that Doctor Diver is the son of a priest, as is Jung.
However, regarding this, it is most likely that Fitzgerald was depicting an opinion of his own father Milford, In other words, both had forebears who played a respectable role in their respective communities.
Furthermore, it is known that Jung was forced to rely on scholarships and later loans in order to complete his medical studies Wehr, Doctor Diver also received a scholarship to study at Oxford Fitzgerald, Thus, neither Diver nor Jung came from exceedingly wealthy backgrounds. It was their efforts, along with their intelligence, which enabled them to achieve their goals. Nevertheless, both married very rich women.
Fitzgerald was called to the ranks as a lieutenant in the infantry and aide-de-camp to General John A. Ryan, although he never fought at the front Espejo, Scott Fitzgerald not only took an interest in the figure of Jung, but he also read some of his works, which must have influenced the psychological construction of Dick Diver. The American writer was extremely interested in the social conscience and the historical vision of culture, which would justify his greater interest in the work of Jung over that of Freud.
Jung placed more emphasis on the collective unconscious and the social, rather than the biological, basis of human behavior. There Jung makes his famous distinction between extraverted and introverted types and describes their various forms and characteristics. And yet it is difficult not to believe that he gained from Jung organizing and shaping insights into the psychology of his genteel romantic hero.
To do so, who better to refer to than a famous and attractive psychiatrist such as Carl Gustav Jung? However, as accustomed as Fitzgerald was to depicting his own aspirations and failures in his work, he did not neglect to also endow Dick with many of his personal qualities and defects, such as his inveterate alcohol consumption.
Gregorovius had been born in the Canton of Vaud and was a few years older than Dick.
Beautiful - and damned: the tumultuous marriage of F Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda - hidden-facts.info
He is described as follows: He was the third of the Gregoroviouses -his grandfather had instructed Kraepelin when psychiatry was just emerging from the darkness of all time.
In personality he was proud, fiery, and sheep-like- he fancied himself as a hypnotist. If the original genius of the family had grown a little tired, Franz would without doubt become a fine clinician.
Later, his son Oscar also used this technique in his treatments and even hypnotized Zelda Milford, What is more, Franz Gregorovius was Vaudois by birth and worked on the Zurichsee, just the opposite of Oscar Forel, who was born in Zurich and had his clinic in the Canton of Vaud.
On May 22,Mrs. Fitzgerald transferred to the Valmont Clinic in Switzerland. In fact, it was Oscar Forel who was the first to conduct a psychiatric evaluation and give a diagnosis of schizophrenia, transferring her to Les Rives de Prangins, the clinic on Lake Geneva where he was the director Letter from Doctor Oscar Forel to Nancy Milford dated March 9, Lucia, the daughter of James Joyce, was also treated at this same psychiatric facility, with the same diagnosis Ellmann, According to Nancy Milford, Prangins was a beautiful place, with well-maintained gardens, tennis courts and seven villas where the patients were housed.
Only a limited number of patients were admitted and the doctors and their families also lived on-site, enabling them to take part in the life of the community Milford, Scott Fitzgerald probably took his inspiration from this place when writing about the sanatorium established by Dick and Franz Gregorovius in Tender Is the Night.
The doctors in the novel also lived on the hospital grounds with their respective families. There were two houses known as the Eglantine and the Beeches, where the most serious patients lived, a garden cared for by the patients and three workshops: At Prangins, the Eglantine was the name of one of the buildings where the most serious patients were housed and where Zelda spent some time Milford, It is widely known that Scott had serious problems with alcohol.
His daughter recognized that the two great anxieties with which her father had wrestled throughout his life were money and drink Donaldson,F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald in Love and Madness