Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between Wind Speed, Pressure and Temperature
Patients frequently report that weather changes trigger headache or .. The relationship of headache occurrence to barometric pressure. Exposure of Ta Kwu Ling Wind Station |. Variation of minute Mean Wind at Ta Kwu Ling. Tai Mei Tuk, Elevation of station: 51m above mean. Weather Note (Chinese); Weather Warning .. Shau Kei Wan, Shek Kong, Stanley, Ta Kwu Ling, Tai Mei Tuk, Tai Mo Shan, Tai Po hour Time Series of Air Temperature ___ and Relative Humidity ___ Air temperature, relative humidity and mean sea level pressure are measured at this automatic weather station.
Frequent showers and non-violent thunderstorms often accompanied with heavy rainfall are typical for tropical regions. Intense and well organized storm systems are relatively rare. Surface winds in the tropics generally blow from the east -- northeast in the northern hemisphereor southeast in the southern hemisphere -- these reliable and steady winds are called the trade winds.
You may also wish to look over the Wikipedia page on the Intratropical Convergence Zone. The corresponding pattern of surface pressure is to have a line of lower pressure along the intratropical convergence zone and lines of higher pressure to the north and south of the ITCZ. You should be able to convince yourself that this pressure pattern at the surface would result in the northeast and southeast trade winds using the simple rules for determining the surface wind direction based on the surface pressure pattern.
You need to remember that the Coriolis Effect will turn the wind direction to the right of the pressure gradient in the northern hemisphere and to the left of the pressure gradient in the southern hemisphere. This band of surface convergence, forced rising air, and clouds is easily seen on satellite imagery and is a prominent part of the climate of Earth.
Let's take some time to try to look over a few satellite composite images and movies of the Earth to identify some of the major features of weather patterns around the globe.
You may wish to open this link to satellite composite imagery in another browser window or tab so that you can read the instructions that follow. A composite image of the globe is done by stitching together or compositing simultaneous views from several satellites, since any one of them can only view a small portion of the Earth.
There are many interesting images and movies available.
The time each image was taken in GMT is given below the image. Notice the semi-continuous band of clouds that extends across the globe near the Equator. This is the Intratropical Convergence Zone. Also notice that cloud systems at low latitudes close to the Equator generally move from east toward west. There may even be some active tropical storms in the two week loop depending on when you look.
Now look at the motion of cloud systems at higher latitudes in both the northern and southern hemisphere.
These cloud systems generally move from west to east and commonly rotate or swirl. At higher latitudes the steering level winds around mb are generally west toward east, while in the tropics these winds are generally east toward west.
The movement of tropical storms is further described on the next reading page. Occasionally, a large undulation or ripple in the normal trade wind pattern will develop and move slowly from east toward west.
These disturbances in the flow are called tropical waves, or easterly waves. Because variaions of surface air pressure in the tropics are so slight compared with the middle latitudes, tropical waves are best shown by plotting steamlines of the wind patterns rather than isobars as shown in this example.
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Wind & Air Pressure
Associated Data Table S1: Headache incidence and single weather variables. Recently, the method of empirical mode decomposition EMD has been used to delineate temporal relationships in certain diseases, and we applied this technique to identify intrinsic weather components associated with headache incidence data derived from a large-scale epidemiological survey of headache in the Greater Taipei area. The weather time-series parameters were detrended by the EMD method into a set of embedded oscillatory components, i.
Multiple linear regression models with forward stepwise methods were used to analyze the temporal associations between weather and headaches. We found no associations between the raw time series of weather variables and headache incidence.
For decomposed intrinsic weather IMFs, temperature, sunshine duration, humidity, pressure, and maximal wind speed were associated with headache incidence during the cold period, whereas only maximal wind speed was associated during the warm period. In analyses examining all significant weather variables, IMFs derived from temperature and sunshine duration data accounted for up to The association of headache incidence and weather IMFs in the cold period coincided with the cold fronts.
Temporal Associations between Weather and Headache: Analysis by Empirical Mode Decomposition
Contributing weather parameters may vary in different geographic regions and different seasons. Introduction Headache is one of the most challenging conditions confronting clinicians in their daily practice . Headache sufferers frequently describe weather changes as triggers for headache onset or the worsening of ongoing headache symptoms. Although many people in the general population believe that there is an association between headache and weather early studies examining this possibility have yielded inconsistent results .
The variability in prior findings may be due, at least in part, to the lack of systemic comparisons of a wide range of climatic parameters in relation to headache as well as the lack of adequate analytical methods to investigate weather data, which are often highly dynamic on multiple time scales.
Recent reports have indicated that several weather parameters may be associated with headache, including ambient temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, and wind speed .
However, few studies have examined the temporal relationship between weather and headache. A broad investigation of the temporal effects of weather change on headache attacks is not only essential for identifying causal links between headache and headache triggers, but would also allow clinicians to more effectively manage their headache patients.
Weather patterns reflect a complex interaction among multiple meteorological factors. As a result, consecutive weather time series often show complex fluctuations over time, and their association with headache incidence is difficult to analyze by conventional methods. In the present study, we applied an adaptive-based method of empirical mode decomposition EMD  to detrend weather data.
The EMD method provides a generic algorithm to decompose a complex time series  into a set of intrinsic oscillations, called intrinsic mode functions IMFswhich are orthogonal to one another and can therefore be treated as independent factors, making this method suitable for the challenge of analyzing the temporal association between weather and headache.
We examined the headache diary data from an epidemiological study of migraine conducted in in the Greater Taipei area . April 04, ; Accepted: May 27, ; Published: Wind can be defined simply as air in motion, Pidwirny and Slanina, and according to Newton's second law Norbury and Roulstoneassuming the mass of the wind is unchanged constant densitythe pressure gradient acceleration the acceleration of the wind is directly proportional to the difference in pressure.
This question was addressed using standard Regression Analysis by Wooten and Tsokos ab in "A proposed new scale to identify the category of a Hurricane's status. To further test this relationship, the relations were re-analyzed using this new statistical method and then extended this to include non-response analysis together with interaction between wind speed and pressure.
However, wind formation is a result of temperature difference; pressure and wind speed are co-dependent on temperature. Therefore, to test for the affects of temperatures the analysis was further extended and the issue of volume has also been addressed Powell and Reinhold, It has been shown that the relationship between wind speed and pressure are co-dependent with temperature. It was first considered the relationship between wind speed and pressure within a storm and then considered more complex relationships between wind speedpressure and temperature near the surface of the water.
Having identified statistically the relationship in the subject data, it allows meteorologist to determine estimates of each variable as a function of the other variables, depending on the time of year and on the non-functional relationship obtained. Understanding the non-functional relationship between temperature, pressure and wind speed s is useful in understanding the dynamics that exist within a tropical storm.
Therefore we have 2 The data for the first part of the study are taken from website http: With readings every three hours, we have a sample of size With nearly days of hourly readings, we have a sample of size There variables included in this second data set include pressure and wind speed in addition to temperatures atmospheric, water and dew point from which we will use Wooten's augmented matrix to determine the relationship that exist among the variables including interaction between the wind speed and pressure.
Temporal Associations between Weather and Headache: Analysis by Empirical Mode Decomposition
Then using standard statistical methods for multiple regression, we have the following data matrices: The parameter estimates are given in Table 1 including the analysis of variance and regression statistics.
This model indicates that when there is no wind present, the atmospheric pressure is approximately With a standard error of 9. As proof on concept, we will estimate this same relationship using Wooten's augmented matrix and compare the results. The alternative model is: Modeling done using standard multiple-regression can also be done using augmented matrices.
This gives a scaled model in terms of pressure as a function of wind speed of as shown in Fig.Increased wind speed is accompanied by reduced air pressure
The apparent differences are due to the fact that the data used to calibrate both models where recorded under hurricane conditions and therefore standard atmospheric pressure is extrapolated information. First we will test the relationship between wind speed and pressure assuming interaction and then with the full second order model.
Consider the augmented model including interaction without second order terms: Using the developed non-response analysis, we have to be: