Male Relationships | Interactive Storytelling Tools for Writers | Chris Crawford
Sir Thomas More (7 February – 6 July ), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint . According to his friend, theologian Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, More once seriously contemplated .. refused to take the oath of supremacy of the Crown in the relationship between the kingdom and the church in England. Huizinga () puts it thus in describing Erasmus' relationship with Erasmus writes to Thomas More as follows: “ your affability and kindness are so. In Between Utopia and Dystopia: Erasmus, Thomas More, and the Humanist Republic Yoran's analysis of the relationship between two foundational humanist.
He instead was sent to Paris. There he studied the ancient languages that More studied as a child.
Thomas More and King Henry VIII, their relationship
There he tutored the children of the Lord Mountjoy, who in turn invited Erasmus to join him for a while in England. It is here that these to men began a lasting friendship. The encounter was described by Eramus in It occurred in at the Greenwich house of Sir William Say, to whose daughter Mountjoy was betrothed and who was a family friend of the Mores. More, a school friend, Edward Arnold, and Erasmus paid a visit to the prince the former two offering verses for the younger son of the king.
Erasmus always enjoyed intellectual conversation, and More always sought advice from his scholar friends, St. Their conversation, as mentioned before, was in Latin, for although Erasmus traveled all throughout Europe for most of his life he failed to learn any of the vernacular languages except for use in general affairs, something Reynolds continually points out.
Nonetheless, this spurred a familial relationship between the two. More and Erasmus met face to face. They even went on a small journey together. They walked and talked and shared mutual likes and dislikes although probably more of an intellectual nature, than say food.
This takes into account the hylomorphic nature of the human person. In meeting a true friend, one encounters them both body and soul. In our present circumstances, many people meet online. Here they imagine true friendships have come about.
The Renaissance Desiderius Erasmus (1467–1536) and Thomas More (1478–1535)
Although they may have seen pictures of their friend, nothing, I mean nothing can take the place of a physical encounter with a person. Here there is a natural epistemology of the dignity of this person.AP Euro Video--Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus
Their existence although conceptual before, becomes actual in the intellect. Many friendships fail because they lack this initial physical encounter. Erasmus left England after that most joyous sojourn only to return five years later. He would travel Europe, a vagabond scholar, moving from place to place never staying anywhere long enough to settle.
It was only when his age and his health at the end of his life forced him to stay at Louvain or in Basel for extended periods of time. He was constantly writing letters. Moving from place to place, he kept correspondence with all those he met.
They, including More, will respond. These seemed to be a normal affair because there is a great body of extant letters from both More and Erasmus. One of the general themes, when either mentions the other or writes to the other is mutual respect. This can be seen from Eramus in a letter he wrote while living and working with More on Latin translations of Lucian.
For I do not think, unless the vehemence of my love leads me astray, that Nature ever formed a mind more present, ready, sharpsighted and subtle, or in a word more absolutely furnished with every kind of faculty than his.
Thomas More - Wikipedia
Add to this a power of expression equal to his intellect, a singular cheerfulness of character and an abundance of wit, but only of the candid sort; and you miss nothing that should be found in a perfect advocate. Dorp was a theologian at Louvain who took to arguing and slandering Erasmus for his writing of Praise of Folly which is dedicated to More and in part inspired by him.
More wrote to Dorp defending his friend. I am definitely very much disturbed because, in your work, you give the impression of attacking Erasmus in a manner not all becoming to you or him. You treat him sometimes as if you despise him, sometimes as if you looked down upon him in derision, sometimes not as one giving him an admonition, but scolding him like a stern reprover or a harsh censor; and lastly, by twisting the meaning of his words, as if you were stirring up all the theologians and even the universities against him.
They had each other in mutual respect. Both discussed the good in each other setting aside the bad for what was but rejoiced in the gift that God had given them. This is a lesson for contemporary friendships that seem to be based more on mutual use and than mutual respect.
- Thomas More (1478 - 1535)
- Thomas More
Although More was connected in England and Erasmus throughout Europe, [xix] neither used the other simply for personal advantage. One was always looking out for the mutual good of the other. This job indeed would cost More his life. Indeed, the crowning character of their friendship and probably the glue which kept such physically distant men so close together centered on their relationship with Jesus Christ, whom they met in Scripture and in Eucharist.
One can, especially in More writing while in the tower of London, that he had a deep understanding of the Christian life and the Christian relationship with Jesus Christ. He detested the abuses and pure physicality of the popular piety of the veneration of relics. He wished to direct people towards the heavenly realities and the lives of the saints whose bones they venerate.
Anne Cresacre would eventually marry his son, John More; : An affectionate father, More wrote letters to his children whenever he was away on legal or government business, and encouraged them to write to him often. When he saw from the signature that it was the letter of a lady, his surprise led him to read it more eagerly … he said he would never have believed it to be your work unless I had assured him of the fact, and he began to praise it in the highest terms … for its pure Latinity, its correctness, its erudition, and its expressions of tender affection.
He took out at once from his pocket a portague [A Portuguese gold coin] … to send to you as a pledge and token of his good will towards you. Even Erasmus became much more favourable once he witnessed their accomplishments. More's grandson commissioned a copyof which two versions survive.
Early political career[ edit ] Study for a portrait of Thomas More's family, c. More became Master of Requests in the same year in which he was appointed as a Privy Counsellor. More later served as High Steward for the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
He dispatched cases with unprecedented rapidity. More supported the Catholic Church and saw the Protestant Reformation as heresya threat to the unity of both church and society. More believed in the theology, argumentation, and ecclesiastical laws of the church, and "heard Luther's call to destroy the Catholic Church as a call to war.
More vigorously suppressed Tyndale's English translation of the New Testament. Rumours circulated during and after More's lifetime regarding ill-treatment of heretics during his time as Lord Chancellor. The popular sixteenth-century English protestant historian John Foxewho "placed Protestant sufferings against the background of Stories of a similar nature were current even in More's lifetime and he denied them forcefully. He admitted that he did imprison heretics in his house — 'theyr sure kepynge' — he called it — but he utterly rejected claims of torture and whipping Some biographers, including Ackroyd, have taken a relatively tolerant view of More's campaign against Protestantism by placing his actions within the turbulent religious climate of the time and the threat of deadly catastrophes such as the German Peasants Revolt which More blamed on Luther,    as did many others, such as Erasmus.
InMore was added to the Church of England's calendar of Saints and Heroes of the Christian Churchdespite being a fierce opponent of the English Reformation that created the Church of England.
Parliament's reinstatement of the charge of praemunire in had made it a crime to support in public or office the claim of any authority outside the realm such as the Papacy to have a legal jurisdiction superior to the King's.
Ina royal decree required the clergy to take an oath acknowledging the King as "Supreme Head" of the Church in England. The bishops at the Convocation of Canterbury in agreed to sign the Oath but only under threat of praemunire and only after these words were added: This was considered to be the final Submission of the Clergy.
Thomas More and King Henry VIII, their relationship [Sample]
Henry purged most clergy who supported the papal stance from senior positions in the church. More continued to refuse to sign the Oath of Supremacy and did not agree to support the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine.
Technically, this was not an act of treason, as More had written to Henry seemingly acknowledging Anne's queenship and expressing his desire for the King's happiness and the new Queen's health.
Shortly thereafter, More was charged with accepting bribes, but the charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence. In earlyMore was accused by Thomas Cromwell of having given advice and counsel to the "Holy Maid of Kent," Elizabeth Bartona nun who had prophesied that the king had ruined his soul and would come to a quick end for having divorced Queen Catherine.
This was a month after Barton had confessed, which was possibly done under royal pressure,   and was said to be concealment of treason. But More was prudent and told her not to interfere with state matters. More was called before a committee of the Privy Counsel to answer these charges of treason, and after his respectful answers the matter seemed to be dropped.
More accepted Parliament's right to declare Anne Boleyn the legitimate Queen of England, though he refused "the spiritual validity of the king's second marriage",  and, holding fast to the teaching of papal supremacyhe steadfastly refused to take the oath of supremacy of the Crown in the relationship between the kingdom and the church in England. More furthermore publicly refused to uphold Henry's annulment from Catherine.
John FisherBishop of Rochester, refused the oath along with More. By reason whereof the Bishop of Rome and See Apostolic, contrary to the great and inviolable grants of jurisdictions given by God immediately to emperors, kings and princes in succession to their heirs, hath presumed in times past to invest who should please them to inherit in other men's kingdoms and dominions, which thing we your most humble subjects, both spiritual and temporal, do most abhor and detest In addition to refusing to support the King's annulment or supremacy, More refused to sign the Oath of Succession confirming Anne's role as queen and the rights of their children to succession.
More's fate was sealed. Four days later, Henry had More imprisoned in the Tower of London. There More prepared a devotional Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation. While More was imprisoned in the Tower, Thomas Cromwell made several visits, urging More to take the oath, which he continued to refuse. Site of scaffold at Tower Hill where More was executed by decapitation Commemorative plaque at the site of the ancient scaffold at Tower Hill, with Sir Thomas More listed among other notables executed at the site The charges of high treason related to More's violating the statutes as to the King's supremacy malicious silence and conspiring with Bishop John Fisher in this respect malicious conspiracy and, according to some sources, for asserting that Parliament did not have the right to proclaim the King's Supremacy over the English Church.