Beer's Law - Theoretical Principles
Here, I will explain thisrelationship using absorption spectra of organic compounds obtained with Shimadzu's UV UV-VIS spectrophotometer. where A is the measured absorbance, a() is a wavelength-dependent absorptivity coefficient, b is the path length, and c is the The relation between A and T is. The Absorbance of a Solution. For each wavelength of light passing through the spectrometer, the intensity of the light passing through the.
What is the extinction coefficient?
The Relationship Between UV-VIS Absorption and Structure of Organic Compounds
Suppose you have got a strongly colored organic dye. If it is in a reasonably concentrated solution, it will have a very high absorbance because there are lots of molecules to interact with the light. However, in an incredibly dilute solution, it may be very difficult to see that it is colored at all.
The absorbance is going to be very low. Suppose then that you wanted to compare this dye with a different compound. Unless you took care to make allowance for the concentration, you couldn't make any sensible comparisons about which one absorbed the most light.
The absorbance is not likely to be very high. On the other hand, suppose you passed the light through a tube cm long containing the same solution. More light would be absorbed because it interacts with more molecules.
Again, if you want to draw sensible comparisons between solutions, you have to allow for the length of the solution the light is passing through. Both concentration and solution length are allowed for in the Beer-Lambert Law. Molar absorptivity compensates for this by dividing by both the concentration and the length of the solution that the light passes through.
Essentially, it works out a value for what the absorbance would be under a standard set of conditions - the light traveling 1 cm through a solution of 1 mol dm That means that you can then make comparisons between one compound and another without having to worry about the concentration or solution length.
Values for molar absorptivity can vary hugely. For example, ethanal has two absorption peaks in its UV-visible spectrum - both in the ultra-violet. Choosing Your Wavelength Look at the images above. The left is an absorbance spectrum of 0.
Chem - Experiment II
Is the slope of the calibration line at nm greater than, less than, or equal to the slope at nm? You can choose any wavelength to create a calibration plot, the only differerence will be the slope of the line. When you actually choose your wavelength to create your calibration graph, you would generally like to choose a wavelength where there is room for the concentration to decrease.
Look at the spectrum above. Do you think nm would be a good wavelength to use for a calibration graph? You would not choose that wavelength because when you lower the concentration, you would not be able to see much of a difference in the absorbance, and the calculations would be inaccurate.
You would most likely want to choose wavelengths like nm or nm where there is a lot of room for absorbance change. Now for the fun part! Using the calibration plot that YOU made from the data two pages ago. We are going to determing the concentration of an unknown solution. Make sure you have your plot ready, because here we go!