International cooperation - MeteoSwiss
Here she explores the relationship between art and science and talks about her Registration is open for ECMWF's Industry Day on 16 January in Bologna , Italy. An official ECMWF target is to reduce the frequency of errors >5°C in ensemble 2m temperature forecasts for 5 days ahead. Serving meteorology. Extreme weather events and their modes of variability, seasonal forecasting, climate observations and Italian National Research Council at least in part to anthropogenic climate change, including in relation to increasing temperatures. of meteorology and operational hydrology, as well as for reaping the .. of the relationship between weather, water and climate. Many of the 11 volunteer weather observers across .. Japan; aerosols in Italy; solar radiation in the. Russian.
The association between high and low temperatures and mortality has been investigated in several studies. Most investigations have focused on the effect of temperature on health through a time series approaches or focusing on extreme events heat waves, cold spells using episode analysis. The heat effect appears within few days of exposure and some harvesting is observed [ 45 ].
The heterogeneity of the impact of heat on health reflects geographical, climatic and cultural variability, as well as different capacities to adapt to extreme temperatures and needs to be addressed more in depth in a large scale study [ 4 - 7 ].
Recently, studies on the effect of high temperatures on morbidity provided evidence of an increase in emergency hospital admissions for specific causes in young children and subjects over 75 years of age, though with a smaller effect for admissions than for mortality [ 8 ]. With regards to the effects of cold, several studies have suggested that there is a considerable burden in terms of mortality, especially in the elderly and in persons affected by chronic respiratory or cardiovascular diseases [ 5710 - 12 ].
This effect is generally more prolonged than for heat-related deaths [ 10 - 13 ] and, in contrast with evidence during heat waves, extreme cold seems not to be followed by any mortality displacement [ 13 ].
The impact on morbidity usually anticipates death as suggested by the biological mechanisms underlying cold-related illnesses [ 14 ]. However, the influence of cold on outcomes other than mortality has, to date, received little investigation. The few studies present have focused on cardiovascular admissions and results showed an association with low temperatures [ 9 ]. In the time series analysis performed for this project, temperature was considered an important confounder of the association between air pollution and mortality [ 16 ].
- Annual climate statement 2017
- What is the relationship among meteorology, weather, and climate?
The project "Assessment and Prevention of Acute Health Effects and Weather Conditions in Europe" PHEWE was initiated inwith the general aim of assessing the association between weather and acute health effects daily mortality and hospital admissions in Europe and to provide information for public health policy on preventive and adaptive actions. The specific objectives of the project were: Absolute temperature Temperature based on an absolute scale.
Absolute temperature scale A temperature scale based on absolute zero. See Kelvin temperature scale, Rankine temperature scale. Absolute zero A hypothetical temperature characterized by a complete absence of heat and defined as 0K, Absorption The process in which incident radiation is retained by a substance.
A further process always results from absorption. Absorption hygrometer A type of hygrometer which measures the water vapor content of the atmosphere by means of the absorption of vapor by a hygroscopic chemical. Accretion Growth of a cloud or precipitation particle by the collision and union of a frozen particle with a super-cooled water drop. Accuracy The degree of conformity of an indicated value to an accepted standard value, or ideal value.
See accuracy rating, measured accuracy. Accuracy rating A number of quantity defining a limit that errors will not exceed when a device is used under specified operating conditions. Accuracy rating can be expressed in a number of forms, i. Acid rain Precipitation that carries to earth sulfuric and nitric acid accumulated from air pollutants. Acre-foot The volume of water required to cover one acre to a depth of one foot; 43, cubic feet.
Actinograph A recording actinometer. Actinometer An instrument which measures the intensity of radiation by determining the amount of chemical change or fluorescence produced by that radiation. Actual pressure The atmospheric pressure at the level of the barometer. May or may not be the same as station pressure.
Annual climate statement
Adfreezing The process by which one object becomes adhered to another by the binding action of ice. Adiabatic process A thermodynamic change of state in a system in which there is no transfer of heat or mass across the boundaries of the system. In an adiabatic process, compression always results in warming, expansion in cooling.
Compare to diabatic process. Aeolian Pertaining to the action or effect of the wind. Derived from the name of the Greek god of the winds, Aeolus. Aeolian anemometer An anemometer utilizing the principle that the pitch of the aeolian tones generated by air moving past an obstacle is a function of the speed of the air.
Largely a curiosity and has been put to no practical application in modern meteorology. Aerial Of or pertaining to the air, atmosphere, or aviation.
Also, same as antenna. Aerograph In general, any self-recording instrument carried aloft by any means to obtain meteorological data.
Aerometeorograph A self-recording instrument used on aircraft for the simultaneous recording of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity. A communication system developed in the s by the National Weather Service which utilized minicomputers, video displays, and high-speed communications to replace teletype and facsimile machines.
Air current Very generally, any moving stream of air. It has no particular technical connotation.
Air density The mass density of a parcel of air expressed in units of mass per volume. Air meter A small anemometer with flat vanes which indicates the number of linear feet or meters of air which have passed the instrument during its exposure. Albedo The ratio of the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected by a body to the amount incipient upon it, commonly expressed as a percentage.