Ozone Layer Protection | US EPA
Global action taken under the Montreal Protocol has halted the depletion of the ozone . Relationship between ozone-depleting substances & climate change. Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change The relationship of surface to stratospheric expressions of the NAM can be. Global warming, ozone depletion and climate change are perhaps the greatest threats currently facing our planet. You don't need to look far to.
Recently, there has been increased awareness of the interaction between ozone damage, climate change and the incidence of skin cancer. Geir Braathen, a senior scientist with the World Meteorological Organization WMOwhich co-ordinates ozone data globally, said "with no ozone layer, you would have 70 times more UV than we do now. Australia's position close to Antarctica makes it particularly vulnerable to ozone thinning. This is because every spring, the chlorine carrying polar ice clouds that have formed over the winter, break up releasing the chlorine, which damages the ozone.
Winds during this season pick up and blow the damaged ozone towards Australia's southern states. Ozone depletion is not the only concern when it comes to skin cancer as warming from global greenhouse gas emissions is expected to lead to higher ambient temperatures. Hotter temperatures mean people are more likely to be outdoors, wear fewer clothes and consequently expose themselves to UV radiation from the sun, once again leading to an increased risk of skin cancer.
What can you do? Going green and living a more environmentally-friendly lifestyle is a good first step, but it is also important to engage in the debate with the companies, government and institutions who are making decisions everyday that affect greenhouse gas emissions.
As for your personal risk, the good news is that skin cancer is one of the most preventable forms of cancer in Australia.
Environment change makes it more important than ever to check the UV Alert each day at the SunSmart websiteon the SunSmart app for iPhones or in the weather section of the daily papers and when it's three and above, use sun protection. By making sun protection part of your daily routine, you can protect yourself from this deadly disease.
We will continue to monitor new research on the link between climate change and skin cancer so subscribe to our blog today and keep informed! Environmental effects of ozone depletion: Analysis of the air reveals changes to the composition of the atmosphere dating back thousands of years. Results from GASLAB help us determine levels of greenhouse gases, where they are coming from and what happens to them once they are in the atmosphere. How much have greenhouse gas concentrations increased?
Greenhouse gas graphs The concentration of carbon dioxide is approximately 30 per cent greater than it was in the 18th century, before the industrial revolution. It has increased from around parts per million ppm to approximately ppm today.
Although carbon dioxide comprises only 0. Methane levels have risen from a pre-industrial concentration of about parts per billion ppb to ppb. However, the rapid growth of methane has slowed considerably since the s. Nitrous oxide concentrations have increased from approximately ppb to ppb.
There is strong evidence that ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere are greater than in pre-industrial times, especially in the northern hemisphere. However, the concentrations of many of them are now starting to fall, thanks to international agreements to protect the ozone layer.
Human activities do not directly change atmospheric water vapour concentrations. However, changes to water vapour concentrations may occur in response to increases in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere during the past thousand years, from measurements of air trapped in Antarctic ice supplied by the Australian Antarctic Division and, since the late s, from analysis by the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station.
Methane concentrations in the atmosphere during the past thousand years, from measurements of air trapped in Antarctic ice supplied by the Australian Antarctic Division and, since the late s, from analysis by the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station.
Where do greenhouse gases come from? Most of the increase in carbon dioxide comes from burning of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas for energy, and from deforestation. Rice paddies also generate methane. Other sources of methane are landfills, burning vegetation, coal mines and natural gas fields. Nitrous oxide concentrations are increasing because of changes to the way in which we use land, from fertiliser use, from some industrial processes, and from burning vegetation.
Greenhouse: questions and answers
Ozone is a component of photochemical smog, which, in turn, is the result of emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles and industry. CFCs were made in the past for refrigerants, spray pack propellants, producing foam plastics and as solvents for electronic components. All developed countries, including Australia, have stopped producing CFCs.Global Warming for Kids - #aumsum #kids #education #global #globalwarming
How long do the greenhouse gases last in the atmosphere? Carbon dioxide persists for more than a century in the air. Nitrous oxide and some of the CFCs stay in the air for more than a century.
Global warming, human activity and biodiversity (CCEA)
Are all greenhouse gases equally as effective at trapping heat? Greenhouse gases differ in their ability to trap heat. A kilogram of methane released into the air today, for example, will lead to about 20 times more atmospheric warming over the next century than a kilogram of carbon dioxide. Molecule for molecule, methane, CFCs and nitrous oxide are more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. In order to compare the heating effect of different greenhouse gases, scientists have calculated a global warming potential for each one.
The global warming potential takes into account: For example, methane will produce ozone gas in the lower atmosphere and water vapour in the stratosphere. How much greenhouse gas does Australia produce? InAustralia produced Of Australia's total net emissions inthe production of energy accounted for More details about Australia's emissions is available from the Australian Greenhouse Office's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Past climate and sea level Has climate changed in the past years?
The average surface temperature of the world is now 0. Most of the warming occurred over two periods in the 20th century: Evidence for global warming is multi-faceted. In addition to the global average surface warming of about 0. Many species of plants and animals have changed their location or the timing of their seasonal responses in ways that provide indirect evidence of global warming.
The latest research by Mann and Jones in confirms that the 20th century Northern Hemisphere warming is greater than any time in the past years. Both air over land and over the oceans has warmed.
The most recent period of warming has been almost global, although the largest temperature increases have occurred over northern hemisphere continents in the mid- to high- latitudes. Parts of the north-western North Atlantic and the central North Pacific Oceans have cooled in recent decades. Nine out of the ten warmest years on record occurred in the s and s.
In Australia recorded its highest ever annual mean temperature since high-quality data records began in The Australian mean temperature for was Annual mean temperature anomalies for Australia. Bureau of Meteorology What information are satellites giving us about temperature changes?
Despite the wide range of indicators of global warming, critics often focus on a year period from when early studies with satellite data showed little or no warming in the lower atmosphere, whereas thermometer data showed that surface temperatures had increased. However, this disparity has declined in recent years. A recent study by Vinnikov and Grody found good agreement between the satellite and surface data fromwith a satellite-based warming of 0. Another study by Mears et al found a satellite-based warming of 0.
Santer and others have concluded that apparent inconsistencies between surface and satellite results may be an artefact of satellite data uncertainties. The satellite record is too short to be certain. The longer record of temperature measurements from weather balloons shows that the lower atmosphere has warmed by about 0.
In addition, both weather balloons and satellites show that the stratosphere the layer of the atmosphere from about 12 to 50 kilometres above the ground is cooling.
This is a change that scientists expect to happen as levels of greenhouse gases increase and the ozone layer thins. Are humans responsible for changes to our climate? It is difficult to distinguish natural variability in climate from human-induced climate change. Global warming in the early part of the 20th century can be explained by a combination of natural and human-induced changes, while most of the warming in the last 50 years was due to human activities, namely increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.
Considering the 20th century as a whole, it is extremely unlikely that global warming can be explained by natural variability. Hence, while a variety of factors increased air-borne particles, stratospheric ozone depletion, volcanic eruptions and internal climate variability influence climate, the most dominant driver of change in the past few decades has been the increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Given the projected increases in concentrations, greenhouse warming is expected to be even more dominant in the 21st century.
Some people have claimed that measurements of global temperatures have been distorted because a number were made in cities where local temperature rises have been caused by urban development.
Climatologists have long recognised the urban heat island effect, and have allowed for it in their assessments. Sea-surface temperatures and small-island temperatures, which are not affected by the urbanisation, also show global warming, as do ocean temperatures to depths of metres. Other evidence of warming is available from tree rings, ice cores, boreholes and glacial retreat.
Has sea level changed since ? During the past years, global average sea level has risen by between 10 and 20 cm. However, we have no evidence to associate this increase with global warming. Future changes to climate and sea level What impact will rising greenhouse gases have on climate? This warming is likely to lead to world-wide changes in weather and climate.
Greenhouse: questions and answers
Some places may get more rain and storms while others may get less. Not all changes will be bad for everybody. However, almost everywhere the weather and climate will be different from what it used to be. By the end of the 21st century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, average world temperatures are likely to be between 1. This is much larger than the changes observed over the 20th century, and the rate of warming is unprecedented in at least the last 10, years.
Average rainfall across the globe is likely to increase, particularly during winter in northern mid- to high latitudes. Precipitation events are very likely to be more intense over most areas of the globe, as well as a likely increase in summer risk of drought. Australia will be hotter and drier in coming decades.
Warmer conditions will produce more extremely hot days and fewer cold days. Over most of the continent, annual average temperatures will be 0. Byaverage temperatures are likely to increase by 1 to 6 degrees Celsius. The temperature ranges quoted indicate the scientific uncertainty associated with the projections. The warming won't be the same everywhere. There will be slightly less warming in some coastal areas and Tasmania, and slightly more warming in the north-west.
South-western Australia can expect decreases in rainfall, as can parts of south-eastern Australia and Queensland. Wetter conditions are possible in northern and eastern Australia in summer and inland Australia in autumn. When combined with the increase in potential evaporation, the changes in rainfall will lead to drier conditions in Australia. In areas that experience little change or an increase in average rainfall, more frequent or heavier downpours are likely.
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Conversely, there will be more dry spells in regions where average rainfall decreases. Most climate models indicate that in many places global warming is likely to increase the frequency and duration of extreme events such as heavy rains, droughts and floods. It is these events that are so often responsible for devastating droughts in Australia. What will happen to sea level?
By the yearthe global average sea level is likely to be between 3 and 17 cm higher than the level. Bysea level is projected to rise by approximately 9 to 88 cm, compared with The rate and magnitude of sea-level change will vary from place to place in response to coastline features, changes in ocean currents, differences in tidal patterns and sea-water density, and vertical movements of the land itself.