Water, Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle
The carbon cycle exchanges carbon among the biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Along with the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle. Oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbon are very important in assisting organisms with survival. Because matter is never created nor destroyed, these substances. The three main cycles of an ecosystem are the water cycle, the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle.
It was ultimately determined that decreasing soil water availability rather than increasing air temperature largely affected both assimilation and respiration fluxes of understory plants and in consequence ecosystem respiration and soil respiration .
Nitrogen Cycle[ edit ] Nitrogen is one of the biochemical products which exists within the environment. It is required for the manufacturing of all amino acids and nucleic acids; however, the average organism can not use atmospheric nitrogen for these tasks and as a result is dependent on the nitrogen cycle as a source of its usable nitrogen.
Nitrogen is assimilated into living organisms through three stages: Atmospheric nitrogen can also undergo nitrogen fixation by lighting and UV radiation and become NO Following nitrogen fixation, nitrification occurs. During nitrification, ammonia is converted into nitrite, and nitrite is converted into nitrate.
Nitrification occurs in various bacteria. In the final stage, plants absorb ammonia and nitrate and incorporate it into their metabolic pathways. Once the nitrogen has entered the plant metabolic pathway, it may be transferred to animals when the plant is eaten. Nitrogen is released back into the cycle when denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- into N2 in the process of denitrification, when detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back into ammonia in the process of ammonification, or when animals excrete ammonia, urea, or uric acid.
A lot of environmental problems are caused by the disruption of the nitrogen cycle by human activity some of the problems caused range from the production of troposperic lower atmospheric smog to the perturbation of stratospheric ozone and contamination of ground water.Environment and ecology: Carbon cycle and Water cycle : Learn Online
An example of one of the problems caused is the formation of greenhouse gas. These two products can reduce the ozone. The atmospheric carbon is primarily carbon dioxide. Carbon, on land, occurs primarily in living biota and decaying organic matter.
What is the relationship between the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and phosphorous cycle?
Dissolved carbon dioxide and small organisms like plankton that store carbon dioxide are major sources in the ocean. Carbon is measured in Gigatons, with the deep ocean containing almost 40, Gt, compared to about 2, Gt on land and Gt in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, a known "greenhouse gas", traps some of the radiation in the atmosphere that would be lost in space. This causes the atmosphere to be warmer than it would naturally be.
The increase in carbon dioxide causing global warming is important for us to understand so we can predict future implications concerning our planet. Average global temperatures have increased this past century and are predicted to increase even more in the next century. In a study done by Parmesan etal, the distribution and population dynamics of several species of butterflies were monitored in response to the increased temperatures. Migratory patterns of each species were observed and compared to previous patterns of distribution.
The butterflies showed a northern shift which is thought to be a response to increased temperatures. Parmesan etal concluded that the current and future climate warming may be a big factor in shifting species distributions .
It does not stay in the atmosphere, because it is normally in a liquid state at room temperature. Phorsphorus mainly cycles through water, soil, and sediments. The little phosphorus in the atmosphere is carried by dust particles and such.
Phosphate is most often in the form of phosphate salts, which is released from weathered rock and dissolved in ground water where plants take it up. Phosphorus is a limiting factor for plants on land and in water, including the ocean because there is so little of it and it is not very soluble in water.
The cycle does speed up a little bit as it cycles through plants and animals. When the plants and animals die and decay the phosphorus is returned to the soil and sediments and eventually locked back in the rock. The iron cycle is similar to every other cycle. It is, however, much more abundant than phosphorus. One additional way iron gets cycled, besides rock weathering, is when a volcano erupts and sends an iron rich dust into the atmosphere and eventually spreading it in soil and water. Other trace minerals, such as, zinc, copper, and manganese, were once thought to be just as abundant as nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen.
Their depletion is thought to be from water erosion of the soil and over cropping of land, they aren't able to replenish themselves as fast. To learn more about all the trace minerals essential to life visit: Nutrients - Trace Minerals "Perfect" Cycles[ edit ] Odum describes what are called more or less "perfect" cycles: That is, there exists in nature a balance in the cycling of the element between various compartments, with the element or material moving into abiotic compartments about as fast as it moves into biotic compartments.
Certain ecosystems may experience "shortages", but overall a balance exists on a global scale. Deserts are characterized by their limited precipitation. Deserts have a brief rainy season which on average produces less than 30 cm rainfall per year.
Deserts are mainly located at 30 degrees North and South latitude because of its dry air resulting from the Hadley cell please read interlink below on a Hadley cellwhich stretches between the equator and 20 to 35 degrees North and South latitude.
The Water Cycle, Carbon Cycle and Nitrogen Cycle by Resky Tenorio on Prezi
Deserts have the capacity to be very productive climates because they are in a high energy input area of the round earth please refer to chapter 3 about solar irradiation and the earth being roundbut are limited by their low precipitation. They consist of mainly annuals that grow and reproduce during the brief rainy season. The main flora are succulents that store water, have waxy cuticles to prevent water loss, they may have few modified small leaves or needles, and have large shallow root systems.
Chaparrals are desert types located in the mediterranean area. Chaparrals are characterized by its distinct rainy season and more so by its extremes. Summer temperatures can reach a high of approximately 40 degrees Celsius and winter temperatures an reach a low of approximately degrees Celsius. Plants and animals inhabitats are drought adapted to aide survival. Soil[ edit ] Soil is the foundation for terrestrial systems.
It is a mixture of organic living and nonliving and inorganic material. The organic part is contributed by plants, animals, and microbes. The inorganic part is a result of weathering.
Soil Layering[ edit ] Soil is a composition of many different layers. The first top layer is the O Horizon which is then compsed of 2 sublayers the Oi and Oa layers. The Oi is the intact organic layer which is made up of dead organic matter and leaf litter. The Oa is contains mostly humus and is situated next to the A Horizon. The entire O Horizon is about 10cm deep. Deserts usually lack the O Horizon.
The next layer is the A Horizon. This is what most consider the topsoil, it is a mixture of weathered rock clay, sand, and silt from lower layers and organic material from the O Horizon. This is the area where there are the most roots, microbes, and invertebrates. This horizon usually has a high respiration rate, and has most of the nutrients leeched to lower layers by water.
The Three Cycles of the Ecosystem | Sciencing
The top 2 layers combined O and A Horizons are on average about 0. The next layer is the E Horizon or Eluviation Horizon. This layer has the least amount of dissolved nutrients. This layer can have a clay pan formed at the bottom which is highly compacted clay which prevents weathering of rock below. The also prevents tap roots from reaching the C Horizon. This may also cause the area above to become water-logged. This is the area where leechates collect, and most tap roots exist.
It is usually mineral rich and contains little organic material. It is usually about 0. Below the B Horizon is the C Horizon, which is the lowest soil, layer is commonly called the subsoil. This is mostly weathered parent material.
This is usually about 0. Lastly is the inorganic material of the soil or the R Horizon. This is also called bedrock which is a result of weathering from wind, water, temperature, and plants. Particle Size[ edit ] Different sizes of particles in sand The particle size of soil is correlated to the amount of surface area of the particles and the charge of the surface area.
A decrease in particle size equals an increase in surface area which in turn equals an increase in a negative charge of the surface area. Clay consists of particles smaller than 0. Silt consists of particles smaller than 0. Sand consists of particles smaller than 2mm and has the smallest water capacity and the lowest nutrient capacity. Acidic Soil[ edit ] Acidic soil is any type of soil that has a low pH. It is created whenever soil is very low in minerals and may be created by conifer needles.
Amino acids also breaks down clay. The breakdown of clay is done by leeching the minerals out of the soil. Acid rain or precipitation that is unusually acidic because of emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds which react with the atmosphere is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil.
Analysis using a Processed-Based Model". Frozen water ice may be trapped at the cooler regions of the Earth such as the poles, glaciers and on mountain as snow or ice, and may remain as such for very long periods.
Lakes, ponds, and wetlands form where water is temporarily trapped and stored. The oceans are salty because any erosion of minerals that occurs as the water runs to the ocean will add to the mineral content of the ocean water. Water cannot leave the oceans except by evaporation, and evaporation leaves the minerals behind.
Thus, rainfall and snowfall are comprised of relatively clean water, with the exception of pollutants that are picked up, as the waste falls through the atmosphere, an example of this would be acid rain.
Organisms play an important role in the water cycle. The water is not contained for a long time and moves out of the organism quickly in most cases. In plants, water is drawn in at the roots and moves to the gas exchange organs, the leaves, where it evaporates quickly. This special case is called transpiration because it is responsible for so much of the water that enters the atmosphere.
- Disturbance Affects Relationship between the Nitrogen and Carbon Cycles
In both plants and animals, the breakdown of carbohydrates sugars to produce energy respiration produces both carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Photosynthesis reverses this reaction, and water and carbon dioxide are combined to form carbohydrates. Now you understand the relevance of the term carbohydrate; it refers to the combination of carbon and water in the sugars we call carbohydrates.
From a biological perspective, the key events here are the complementary reactions of respiration and photosynthesis. Respiration takes carbohydrates and oxygen and combines them to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide and water and produces carbohydrates and oxygen.
This might sound a little confusing but, the outputs of respiration are the inputs of photosynthesis, and the outputs of photosynthesis are the inputs of respiration. The reactions are also complementary in the way they deal with energy. Photosynthesis takes energy from the sun and stores it in the carbon-carbon bonds of carbohydrates; respiration releases that energy.
Both plants and animals carry on respiration, but only plants and other producers can carry on photosynthesis. Respiration performed by plants and animals is called exothermic reaction and it involves the breaking down of glucose or other organic molecules into carbon dioxide and water. The chief reservoirs for carbon dioxide are in the oceans and in rock.
Carbon dioxide dissolves readily in water. Once there, it may precipitate fall out of solution as a solid rock known as calcium carbonate limestone. Corals and algae encourage this reaction and build up limestone reefs in the process. On land and in the water, plants take up carbon dioxide and convert it into carbohydrates through photosynthesis.
This carbon in the plants now has three possible fates.