Neuroethics and fMRI: Mapping a Fledgling Relationship | Louise Whiteley - hidden-facts.info
A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 1: overview and reviews – defining and Neuroethics and fMRI: Mapping a fledgling relationship. Despite cries from traditionalists in the legal field cautioning to resist neuroscience in the court room, interest in neurolaw research continues to. Citation: Garnett A, Whiteley L, Piwowar H, Rasmussen E, Illes J () Neuroethics and fMRI: Mapping a Fledgling Relationship. PLoS ONE.
Take, for example, the presentation of two scan images, one from a group of patients with a particular psychiatric diagnosis and one from a control group: Many of these issues are directly relevant to the fMRI researcher . In designing controlled laboratory studies of complex concepts such as anger, wisdom, or empathy, there is much to be learned from philosophical literatures and studies in the social sciences about the implications of operationalizing these concepts in particular ways .
The nascent field of neuroethics aims to highlight, inform, and address underexplored ethical, legal, and social issues arising from neuroscience, and to encourage discussion among researchers and research communities  — . Here we ask whether neuroethics has been successful in penetrating the neuroimaging research domain by examining citation patterns. Investigating bibliometric trends such as citation patterns is a key method for understanding the development of nascent fields such as neuroethics and their interaction with existing disciplines, and for tracking the evolution of their often mutable terminologies .
One might predict that primary research articles would not discuss neuro ethics in depth, with researchers assuming that institutional ethics approval is sufficient, and having little incentive to engage further  — . This is of concern, as ethics training and approval is often superficial and inadequate to the particular quandaries of neuroimaging . However, one might also expect that the increasing degree of overlap between the potential real-world implications of fMRI research and its subject of study — for example, in experiments pertaining to human nature, mental contents, and moral reasoning — would be reflected in increased overlap in fMRI and ethics content, and in cross-citations between the two literatures.
In addition, there have already been calls for researchers to engage more deeply in ethical, social, and legal debate within science journals neuroethics topics are increasingly discussed in the popular press and neuroimagers are increasingly called upon to defend their encroachment on the traditional domains of the humanities .
Methods For bibliometric methods to accurately describe the shape of a particular field, it is crucial that search strategies, inclusion criteria, and visualization practices are appropriate to the domain . We therefore developed the methodological procedure described below through collaboration between experts in information science, scientific publication, neuroimaging, and neuroethics.
Full details are included in Table 1 and in the Appendix S1. Table 1 Research Questions and Data Sets.
What are the salient topics among articles discussing both fMRI research and ethical, legal, and social issues? ISI Web of Science. Are fMRI articles, and those discussing ethical, legal, and social issues, citing each other? Original fMRI research articles, based on detailed machine-derived query and manual curation. ELSI research articles, based on detailed query.
Open in a separate window 1. Tracking Overlapping fMRI and Neuroethics Publications We took as a starting point Seixas and Basto's bibliometrics analysis of neuroethics, the only other study of this nature to date . Although Seixas and Basto's focus was on impact factor and nation of origin, and on issues affecting radiologists we revisited their coding guide to provide continuity for the present content analysis.
We sorted the remaining articles according to nominal topic categories, augmenting the scheme used by Seixas and Basto to reflect new facets of the literature . Appendix C in Appendix S1 lists the categories in the original and augmented coding scheme — the only two independent additions were a category including research on the neurobiology of moral and ethical judgments, and a meta-ethics category to encompass papers and reviews considering neuroethics itself.
A final coding scheme was applied by two authors LW and AGand the minimal number of disagreements were resolved through discussion. Since this kind of coding is inevitably shaped by pre-existing ways of conceptualizing the literature, both in the design and application of the codes, we also conducted an automated analysis to reveal clusters of co-citing papers.
Neuroethics and fMRI: Mapping a Fledgling Relationship
This provides a more data-driven picture of ELSI topics surrounding fMRI, weighted by a richer measure of the prominence of each paper in the citation landscape. We submitted the original query results to the CiteSpace II platform for visualizing patterns in Scientific Literature, which generates an directed graph showing the citation links edges between papers nodes, each representing a single published article .
Less well-connected papers were filtered out using a standard pruning procedure to aid visualization. This procedure is described in detail in Appendix D in Appendix S1. We also used the CiteSpace II platform to apply machine-derived labels to each cluster, constructed from noun phrases appearing in the constituent article titles, abstracts, and indexing terms.
In this context, the an even smaller number of fMRI articles that substantively cited false-negative problem creates a real dilemma for companies developing the ELSI literature. In many fMRI studies, the only acknowledgment of research ethics was a mention of informed consent — necessary, in many The ELSI literature also included several citations of fMRI cases, for publication, and a frustrating confound in our attempts studies of moral correlates, which were excluded from this analysis to identify more substantive discussion.
For example, there were in order to reveal cross-citations indicative of substantive frequent citations of the World Medical Association Declaration discussion of the ethics and implications of research itself. While review boards can ensure that research is Robertson et al. In addition to the reliance on ethics review boards, there are Discussion practical, institutional, and incentive barriers to scientists taking ownership of the ethics and implications of their research.
Indeed, a We began by arguing that that fMRI raises substantive ELSI survey recently conducted with neuroimagers in Canada  issues for the conduct, application, and implications of research. It is possible that more substantial ethics discussion disciplinary locus of neuroimaging research and the academic takes place in reviews, policy articles, or grant applications, and future discourses surrounding its ethical, legal, and social implications.
Following Seixas and Basto  we therefore investigated The central topic cluster in our graphical analysis included both overlapping ethics and fMRI content, and found that this moral correlates research, and discussion of the ethics issues landscape reflected a wide variety of concerns discussed in the associated with using fMRI to putatively reveal facets or contents of eponymous neuroethics literature, ranging from clinical practice to the mind — often referred to as mind-reading.
In the direct citation philosophical enquiry. In fluid and diverse fields, using biblio- analysis we excluded moral correlates research, but several articles metric analysis can thus support the spread of research, concepts, included discussion of the neural basis of morality among other and methodologies and reduce the degree of repetition and ethics issues.
We argue that these two domains naturally inform redundancy.
Neuroethics and fMRI: mapping a fledgling relationship.
Here, we suggest better dissemination of neuroethics each other: Ethics means many phenomenon, but does not answer the question of how such different things to many different people, and citation analysis knowledge ought to be used . Several scholars have argued that serves as a reminder that research is driven by a focus on the nature of bioethical enquiry precludes the kind of binary fact- substantive questions that cross disciplinary boundaries.
We conclude by emphasizing the benefit of devoting at least some space in fMRI research articles to specific research appropriate available references, that their literature review is ethics questions, and to discussion of the wider meaning, concrete exhaustive, and that chosen citations are objectively valid for the implications, and conceptual underpinnings of neuroimaging purpose intended. Citation analysis does dissemination and prominence of ethical discussion surrounding not carry any positive or negative polarity, and should not be taken this potent technology, to ground debate about the nature and to provide a measure of the quality of a given work.
This is invaluable to the descriptive analysis of the role of terminology in shaping the dissemination and structure of new research fields Supporting Information . Indeed, in tracing the network of research that has shaped Appendix S1 neuroethics, we have found threads weaving together from diverse DOC literatures in sociology, anthropology, cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, marketing, law, and others.
Lest we Author Contributions claim to have rediscovered what was not lost, we note that these Conceived and designed the experiments: Performed the links often originate in deliberate attempts by researchers working experiments: Contributed to unite the disciplines.
Reflections providers on the use of neuroimaging in mental health care.
Neuroethics and fMRI: Mapping a Fledgling Relationship - Semantic Scholar
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Neuroethics and fMRI: mapping a fledgling relationship.
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