Ecosystem and ecotomo: a nature or society-nature relationship?
The intimate relation between Ethology and Ecology is also shown. components organism/society and entorno/nature articulate in the form of a relation. Nature/Society Relationships Nature/Society. A longstanding strength of Geography is its aim to understand the linkages between human society and the natural. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN SOCIETY AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IS CORE CONCERN OF JOHANNESBURG SUMMIT.
In the 's, however, the opening of new roads adopted by the National Integration Program - PINfirst associated with colonization policies and afterwards replaced by fiscal incentives aimed at stimulating ranchers and timber companies, has contributed to the fast decrease of Brazil nut groves. The loss of power by the local oligarchy is both cause and consequence of the emerging forms of adding value to natural resources, particularly land.
The old emphyteuta individuals holding "emphyteusis" deeds began to divide and sell their lands to companies and farmers from southeastern and northeastern Brazil, retaining areas for themselves in order to become ranchers. Initially, the planning officials did not pay much attention to the fast expansion of cattle ranching, logging, farming, and mining activities, which were soon followed by extended industrial mining activity.
Poor migrants from northeastern Brazil, or small capital holders from the South and Southeast, were all neglected by public policies since These social groups were involved in a fierce struggle and became a changing power. Organized or otherwise, these groups occupied lands, planted crops and began extensive ranching activities. The changes promoted by small and medium land owners were not restricted to rural settlements - official or not - since benefits from the Special Constitutional Fund for the North - were extended to them from onwards.
In the beginning, this was a financing fund for permanent crops, but at in the late 's it was granted to extensive beef ranchers. Without the traditional Brazil nuts and with limited capital, migrants allowed the entrance of loggers, who decimated the Brazil nut trees, along with other species.
By the end of the 20th century, competition among several social actors for gaining access to parts of resources, particularly land, was greatly extended. The landscape resulting from cattle expansion, promoted by large and small land owners, in a production area, became very popular and was frequently referred to as the Brazil nut grove graveyard.
Nature/Society Relationships | Geography
The satellite images show that the forests which harbored Brazil nut groves in this area were wiped out Figure 2. Large teams of workers were recruited to build this giant hydroelectric dam. Notwithstanding the fact that economy has remained basically extractive, social structures, which have sustained the predominant economy, have changed greatly in the region.
Such changes have dialectically led to the maintenance of an economy based on depletion of natural resources with changes in the type of natural resources valued at the time, as well as changes in social relations. The large electricity company Eletronorte, and the large mining company CVRD played important roles in these changes, supported by Brazilian state development decisions and actions.
Iron was actually found in By the end of and beginning of the 's, the Serra Pelada group was the largest open air gold mine in the world. It was an area located outside the great concentration of Brazil nut groves and free from the presence of extractive farmers. Even in areas where some roads were constructed to support mineral prospect, there is a big dependence on air transport, with the use of helicopters due to its adequate flexibility AMZA, s.
With flat tops and altitudes ranging from to meters, the mountains called the geologists' attention for the hardpan pro parte, which did not allow the growing of dense vegetation. On this hard soil, existing vegetation was savannah and small woods, very thin and contrasting with the surrounding luxuriant forest.
Economy was fundamentally based on Brazil nut collection, rubber tapping, and hunting wild animals for their fur. Here one notices the importance of CVRD's interests, pressuring the government not only for underground control of the region, but also alleging that only by controlling the surface would mining of the underground resources be possible.
Several strategies were therefore developed in order to secure, directly or indirectly, control over wide tracts of land by CVRD. One of the first tools used for securing control over those lands was a Decree-Law issued by the military government in This Decree-Law established that all lands falling into an area kilometers to each side of all federal roads and railroads, already constructed or planned, would belong to the federal government and would be used for agricultural settlements, coordinated by the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform- INCRA.
According to this law, the national government owned part of the land petitioned by CVRD, still a state-owned company at this point. Since not all areas to be mined by the company belonged to the Union with a capital "U" - the Federal Republic of Brazilan important problem remained to be solved by planners: Thus an expanded area was generated, allegedly for government use in agrarian reform policies, based on the projection of a new imaginary or "planned" road: The planned road was never built, but one of its consequences was called "Hourglass", named after the shape of the land that was left outside the areas projected on the map.
This land extended to the side of several federal roads, real or imaginary, as established by the Decree-Law. There was fear that squatters and gold miners would threaten the security of this area, creating obstacles for present and future interests in increasing CVRD's land concessions.
The land was "considered Union property, extracted from a larger area ofhectares, previously taken by INCRA and GETAT, through 'discretionary procedures' government privilege related to land rights established by Law nr. Since the early 's, squatters have entered the area, convinced that it did not belong to CVRD. Aroundanother hundred families occupied the area. Human presence is allowed in the area only if such occupation follows strict rules and natural resources area used in a sustainable manner.
Public visits are forbidden in the Rebio, thus securing company control over this area. The creation of this unit allows rational use of renewable natural resources and mineral resources copper, gold, and manganese.
CVRD, however, has direct influence in management of this area. The creation of this FLONA allowed the company to mine underground resources and prevent land occupation by former gold miners, squatters and forest product collectors loggers and othersincluding other mining companies Figure 2. This is a conservation unit which secures the right of mining iron and other ores existing within the already mentionedhectares previously granted by the National Congress, provided that the environment is protected and that mining is carried out without disturbing environmental balance.Mod-01 Lec-03 Nature of society: Individuals and groups
The administrative demarcation of this area was ratified by a decree in The choice of transforming this area into a FLONA, rather than any other type of conservation unit, is due to the fact that this type of unit allows mining, provided that it is conducted in an ecologically sustainable manner. Therefore, this is a successful strategy to incorporate large areas for use, through which a private company - CVRD - is able to exert power over space that is functionally for the company's interests, but not always accessible to other social agents, among them other mining companies.
The analysis conducted through satellite images, modern land use and occupation of 63, sq km of these valleys Figure 3 indicates how different the landscape of this area is compared to that presented by Coudreau at the end of the 19th century. The areas with vegetation associated to cattle ranching or farming already occupy 22, sq km, corresponding to And vegetation cover represented by secondary forest, almost invariably secondary forests in different stages of development, is 3, sq km, corresponding to 5.
Since its construction, several ecological changes, such as proliferation of mosquitoes and micro-climatic changes, still under study, have been attributed to it. From a demographic point of view, a great majority of the tens of thousands of workers employed by the enterprise remained in the region, increasing pressure on land and other natural resources.
Logging almost throughout the entire region was the main factor responsible for transformation of primary forests into secondary vegetation. The occupation process is always characterized by logging of commercial trees, followed by occupation based on cattle ranching activities, and abandonment of the old area moving to new ones, without a relocation program.
Today, the area of the so called Brazil Nut Grove Polygon" is covered by vegetation associated with farming and ranching activities. Non-contiguous forest fragments are present not only in these areas, but also all over the valleys studied herein.
These are vulnerable areas, with poor forest cover preservation capacity, due to anthropic pressure on them. The shift from a regional economy that once valued Brazil nuts to another that values other natural resources, among them iron ore, has caused structural changes at almost all levels of regional society. Power generation, transport, and communication systems were developed. Migrations, municipal divisions, urban population growth, ranching processes, development and increasing land conflicts, proliferation of rural settlements, demarcation and the new treatment given to indigenous issues, increased deforestation and environmental impoverishment are but a few indications of the changes in the importance of the traded resources.
The social bases that supported the Brazil nut extractive economy have changed. Those who still remain in business cope with the land struggle led by social movements that are increasingly organized.
Society liberates and limits the activities of men and it is a necessary condition of every human being and need to fulfillment of life. Society is a system of usages and procedures of authority and mutual aid many divisions of controls of human behavior and of liberties.
This changing system, we call society and it is always changing . Society not confined to man . It should be clear that society is not limited to human beings.
There are many degrees of animal societies, likely the ants, the bee, the hornet, are known to most school children. It has been contended that wherever there is life there is society, because life means heredity and, so far as we know, can arise only out of and in the presence of other life. All higher animals at least have a very definite society, arising out of the requirements their nature and the conditions involved in the perpetuation of their species .
In society each member seeks something and gives something. A society can also consist of likeminded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, large society moreover; a society may be illustrated as an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals.
Society is universal and pervasive and has no defined boundary or assignable limits. A society is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes of behavior which mark them off from others who do not enter into those relations or who differ from them in behavior. In this way we can conclude that, society is the whole complex of social behavior and the network of social relationship .
Society exists wherever there are good or bad, proper or improper relationships between human beings. These social relationships are not evident, they do not have any concrete from, and hence society is abstract. Society is not a group of people; it means in essence a state or condition, a relationship and is therefore necessarily an abstraction. Society is organization of relationship.
It is the total complex of human relationships. It includes whole range of human relations. Now we can say that society is the union itself, the organization, the sum of formal relations in which associating individuals are bound together. Societies consist in mutual interaction and inter relation of individuals and of the structure formed by their relations.
Social Life As a human being man cannot live without association. Because individuals cannot be understood apart from their relations with one another; the relations cannot be understood apart from the units or terms of the relationship. A man of society may be aided by the understanding of say, neurons and synapses, but his quest remains the analysis of social relationships .
The role of social life is clarified when we consider the process by which they develop in the life of the individual. Social life is the combination of various components such as activities, people and places. While all of these components are required to define a social life, the nature of each component is different for every person and can change for each person, as affected by a variety of external influences.
In fact, the complex social life of our day his actions indeed, even his thoughts and feelings are influenced in large measure by a social life which surrounds him like an atmosphere . It is true that, human achievement is marked by his ability to do, so to a more remarkable degree than any other animal.
Everywhere there is a social life setting limitations and pre- dominatingly influencing individual action. Because they work together, combine and organize for specific purposes, so that no man lives to himself. This unity of effort is to make society . There are different kinds of social life and these are depends on various factors. These types of factors of social life are normal and for normal people.
Nevertheless, social life depends on different things such as a The political life; b The economic life; c Voluntary associations; d Educational associations; e Methods of communication and; f The family .
Man Is a Social Animal Though accurate information about the exact origin of society is not known still it is an accepted fact that man has been living in society since time immemorial. He cannot live without society, if he does so; he is either beast or God. Man has to live in society for his existence and welfare.
In almost all aspect of his life he feels the need of society. Biologically and psychologically he compelled to live in society. The essence of the fact is that man has always belonged to a society of some sort, without which man cannot exist at all. Society fulfills all his needs and provides security. Every human took birth, grows, live and die in society.
Hence there exists a great deal of close relationships between man and society. Both are closely inter-related, interconnected and inter-dependent. Relationship between the two is bilateral in nature. But this close relationship between man and society raises one of the most important questions i. No doubt Aristotle said so long ago. However, man is a social animal mainly because of the following three reasons: Sociality or sociability is his natural instinct.
All his human qualities such as: All this developed through interaction with others. His nature compels him to live with his fellow beings. The first case was of Kasper Hauser who from his childhood until his seventeenth year was brought up in woods of Nuremberg. In his case it was found that at the age of seventeen he could hardly walk, had the mind of an infant and mutter only a few meaningless phrases.
In spite of his subsequent education he could never make himself a normal man. The second case was of two Hindu children who in were discovered in a wolf den.
One of the children died soon after discovery. The other could walk only on all four, possessed no language except wolf like growls. She was shy of human being and afraid of them.
It was only after careful and sympathetic training that she could learn some social habits. The third case was of Anna, an illegitimate American child who had been placed in a room at age of six months and discovered five years later. On discovery it was found that she could not walk or speech and was indifferent to people around her. All the above cases prove that man is social by nature.
Human nature develops in man only when he lives in society, only when he shares with his fellow begins a common life. He knows himself and his fellow beings within the framework of society. Indeed, man is social by nature. The social nature is not super-imposed on him or added to him rather it is inborn. It is said that needs and necessities makes man social. Man has many needs and necessities. Out of these different needs social, mental and physical needs are very important and needs fulfillment.
All his needs and necessities compel him to live in society. Many of his needs and necessities will remain unfulfilled without the co-operation of his fellow beings. His psychological safety, social recognition, loves and self-actualization needs only fulfilled only within the course of living in society. He is totally dependent for his survival upon the existence of society.
Human baby is brought up under the care of his parents and family members. He would not survive even a day without the support of society. All his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, health and education are fulfilled only within the framework of society. He also needs society for his social and mental developments. His need for self-preservation compels him to live in society. Individual also satisfy his sex needs in a socially accepted way in a society.
To fulfill his security concern at the old age individual lives in society. Similarly helplessness at the time of birth compels him to live in society. A nutrition, shelter, warmth and affection need compels him to live in society.
Thus for the satisfaction of human wants man lives in society. Hence it is also true that not only for nature but also for the fulfillment of his needs and necessities man lives in society. Society not only fulfils his physical needs and determines his social nature but also determines his personality and guides the course of development of human mind.
Development of human mind and self is possible only living in society. Society moulds our attitudes, beliefs, morals, ideals and thereby moulds individual personality. Man acquires a self or personality only living in a society.
Ecosystem and ecotomo: a nature or society-nature relationship?
From birth to death individual acquires different social qualities by social interaction with his fellow beings which moulds his personality. Individual mind without society remains undeveloped at infant stage. Thus, from the above discussion we conclude that Man is a social animal. His nature and necessities makes him a social being. He also depends on society to be a human being. He acquires personality within society. There exists a very close relationship between individual and society like that of cells and body.
Relation between Individual and Society Human cannot survive without society and societies cannot exist without members. Likewise can competition with other societies strengthen the social system, while wearing out its constituent members?
This idea was voiced by Rousseau who believed that we lived better in the original state of nature than under civilization, and who was for that reason less positive about classic Greek civilization than his contemporaries. The relation between individual and society has been an interesting and a complex problem at the same time.
It can be stated more or less that it has defied all solutions so far. No sociologist has been able to give a solution of the relation between the two that will be fully satisfactory and convincing by reducing the conflict between the two to the minimum and by showing a way in which both will tend to bring about a healthy growth of each other.
Aristotle has treated of the individual only from the point of view of the state and he wants the individual to fit in the mechanism of the state and the society. It is very clear that relation between individual and society are very close. So we will discuss here Rawls three models of the relation between the individual and society: His most telling argument against the utilitarian position is that it conflates the system of desires of all individuals and arrives at the good for a society by treating it as one large individual choice.
It is a summing up over the field of individual desires. Utilitarianism has often been described as individualistic, but Rawls argues convincingly that the classical utilitarian position does not take seriously the plurality and distinctness of individuals .
It applies to society the principle of choice for one man. Rawls also observes that the notion of the ideal observer or the impartial sympathetic spectator is closely bound up with this classical utilitarian position. It is only from the perspective of some such hypothetical sympathetic ideal person that the various individual interests can be summed over an entire society . The paradigm presented here, and rejected by Rawls, is one in which the interests of society are considered as the interests of one person.