The Media and its Relations with the Power Holders . Pakistani governments had, certain aspects of the governance system were off The biggest increase in viewers happened in the rural areas, which was attributed to. Media professionals have urged the government to empower Pakistan Electronic Hamid Mir said that “good journalism” and development are. Pakistani media came under increased political pressure in as part of a broader (0 = best, = worst) on matters including national security, economic affairs, and international relations. No further progress was reported by year's end. At the provincial level, the governments of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The proliferation of the media in Pakistan since has brought a massive increase in the number of domestic and foreign journalists operating in Pakistan. The UK Foreign Office states that it is vital that the right to freedom of expression continues to be upheld by the Pakistani Government. This was highlighted by an event supporting freedom of expression run by the European Union in Pakistan, which the United Kingdom supported.
In this project, the team held learning sessions across the country and conducted individual mentoring for journalists to produce stories that meet national and international standards. NearMedia continued the effort with a project for that, in partnership with Media Foundationlaunched News Lens Pakistanan independent online news cooperative which publishes stories in English, Urdu and Pashto for a national audience, and distributes these stories to national and local news outlets.
Learning sessions, in which editors work with reporters newsroom-style to improve their skills, are held in districts of all provinces, and international journalists work with the Pakistan team to mentor them individually.
It was launched and designed to increase and deepen public understanding of the two countries and their important relationship, one that is crucial to regional stability and the global war on terrorism. While there have been many areas of agreement and cooperation, deep mistrust remains between the two, who rarely get opportunities to engage with each other and thus rely on media for their information and viewpoints.
Unresolved issues continue to pose challenges for both countries. This exchange offers U. All participants meet at the East-West Center in Hawaii before and after their study tours for dialogues focused on sensitive issues between the two countries; preconceived attitudes among the public and media in the United States and Pakistan; new perspectives gained through their study tours; and how media coverage between the two countries can be improved.
Ten Pakistani journalists will travel to the United States and ten U. This East-West Center program is funded by a grant from the U. Embassy Islamabad Public Affairs Section.
The program provides journalists with valuable new perspectives and insights on this critically important relationship, a wealth of contacts and resources for future reporting, and friendships with professional colleagues in the other country upon whom to draw throughout their careers. Journalists will study each other's cultures as they are immersed in newsrooms in each country. The program will include events and opportunities to experience U.
Representatives from the U.
Media of Pakistan - Wikipedia
Pakistanis will receive four-week internships at U. Participants on both sides will have opportunities to report on their experiences in each country, which will help to educate their audiences and dispel myths and misconceptions that people carry in each country about residents of the other. The CEJ serves as a hub for the professional development, training and networking of Pakistani journalists and media professionals from all parts of the country.
A partnership with Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism and the Institute of Business Administration IBA aims to provide targeted, practical trainings for Pakistani journalists in print, broadcast, and digital media.
Courses will be co-instructed by faculty from the Medill School, accomplished newsroom managers, editors and reporters from the United States, and prominent media professionals from Pakistan. History[ edit ] The first step in introducing media laws in the country was done by the then military ruler and President Ayub Khan who promulgated the Press and Publication Ordinance PPO in The law empowered the authorities to confiscate newspapers, close down news providers, and arrest journalists.
Using these laws, Ayub Khan nationalised large parts of the press and took over one of the two largest news agencies. The other agencies was pushed into severe crisis and had to seek financial support from the government.
Pakistani Radio and Televisionwhich was established in was also brought under the strict control of the government. According to these new amendments, the publisher would be liable and prosecuted if a story was not to the liking of the administration even if it was factual and of national interest. These amendments were used to promote Haq's Islamist leanings and demonstrated the alliance between the military and religions leaders.
Censorship during the Zia years was direct, concrete and dictatorial. Newspapers were scrutinised; critical or undesired sections of an article censored. In the wake of Zia-ul-Haq's sudden death and the return of democracy, the way was paved to abate the draconian media laws through a revision of media legislation called the Revised PPO RPPO. Fromunder General Pervez Musharrafthe Pakistani media faced a decisive development that would lead to a boom in Pakistani electronic media and paved the way to it gaining political clout.
New liberal media laws broke the state's monopoly on the electronic media. TV broadcasting and FM radio licenses were issued to private media outlets. Although the press does not criticize Islam as such, leaders of religious parties and movements are not exempt from public scrutiny and criticism.
The press traditionally has not criticized the military; the Office of Inter-Services Public Relations ISPR closely controls and coordinates the release of military news. In general, the quality of journalism is high. English language newspapers tend to present more foreign news than Pakistani papers in other languages. Physical Characteristics of Newspapers The typical Pakistani newspaper is of regular rather than tabloid size, averaging about 20 pages per issue. Most newspapers have a weekend, midweek, and magazine section.
Print media included dailies, weeklies, fortnightlies, and monthlies. Deficient literacy rates, urban orientation of the press, and the high price of newspapers are considered primary factors contributing to low circulation rates. Jang is the top daily newspaper with a circulation ofNawa-e-Waqt holds second place with , followed by Pakistan, Khabrain, The News, Dawn, and Business Recorder 22, The three most influential newspapers in Pakistan are the daily Dawn in English, the daily Jang in Urdu, and the daily Business Recorder in the area of business and finance.
The average price of a newspaper varies from Rs 5 to Rs For example, Business Recorder costs Rs 7 per issue. The majority of Pakistan's citizens are heavily dependent on agriculture for employment. Despite steady expansion of industry during the s, Pakistan's economy remains dominated by agriculture.
Inagriculture engaged 47 percent of the labor force and accounted for 24 percent of the gross domestic product as well as close to 70 percent of export revenues. Despite strong performances in the industrial and agricultural sectors, a growing debt-servicing burden, large government expenditures on public enterprises, low tax revenues, and high levels of defense spending contributed to serious financial deficits.
Besides a select few major groups, Pakistani media organizations face chronic financial problems. Newspapers are heavily dependent on advertising revenue as income.
Television held the largest share of media advertising revenues at 40 percent, followed by newspapers at 32 percent, magazines at 10 percent, and radio at 3 percent. Government agencies are the largest advertiser, accounting for 30 percent of all advertising in national newspapers. The government has considerable leverage over the press through its substantial budget for advertising and public interest campaigns, its control over newsprint, and its ability to enforce regulations.
For example, the country's leading Urdu daily, Jangand the English-language daily Newsboth owned by Shakil Ur-Rehman, were cut off for a time from critical government advertising revenue after publishing articles unflattering to the government. Jang also reportedly had difficulty obtaining sufficient newsprint to publish. Due to pressures from national and international organizations, the trend is toward greater press freedom and democracy.
Although the government is the press's largest advertiser, privatization of major industries and banks is causing the government to lose its control over the press and is attempting to counter this trend by enforcing new restrictions. Newspapers in the Massedia Milieu: Electronic Digicom, a private e-mail provider, brought Internet access to Karachi in Nationwide local access was established within one year, and by was available tocomputers, 60, users by 3, Internet hosts.
Internet capabilities provided news media with a means for reaching overseas Pakistanis. In addition, Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation and Pakistan Television Corporation both have web sites accessible to the public. Types of Ownership Three main groups dominate Pakistan: Jang Publications is the largest media group and holds a virtual monopoly of Urdu readership in Sindh, Rawalpindi-Islamabad federal territory, and major shares in Lahore and Quetta. Jang also publishes the largest circulating weekly magazine in Urdu, Akhbare-Jehanand two evening papers, the Daily News and Awam.
The Newsthe first Pakistani newspaper to use computers in all steps of production, is also a publication of the Jang Group.
Pakistan Herald Publications Ltd. The group also began a monthly that focuses on the Internet, entitled Spider. Publications under the Herald Group target the upper class and the better-educated segment of Pakistani society and consequently practice a liberal editorial policy. This group also publishes Familyan Urdu weekly. Several other significant groups and independent publications also exist. The notable daily newspaper chains that have started during the late s and early s include KhabrainPakistanAusafand Din.
Political parties own two major newspapers: From into the early s, the National Press Trust acted as the government's front to control the press. The state, however, no longer publishes daily newspapers; the former Press Trust sold or liquidated its newspapers and magazines in the early s. Distribution Networks The majority of Pakistan's newspapers and magazines strive for national readership. Such major successful dailies are published simultaneously from a number of cities and are produced in different languages to facilitate distribution throughout the country's various regions.
Distribution is through a network of newspaper hawkers; in smaller towns, hawkers also serve as stringers for newspapers. Buses are used for nearby distribution and airfreights are utilized for faraway cities when schedules permit. Newsprint Availability Pakistan's various governments have used newsprint availability as a means to control the Press.
In the recent past, import of newsprint by the print media was subject to issuance of permits by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
This practice allowed the government to patronize sections of the press. By replacing the permit system with a free and open import of newsprint at market prices, the government removed its interventionist dimension in controlling an essential raw material for the press and also ended the corruption that had grown up around the issuance and receipt of the newsprint import permits.
Inhowever, the first government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif restored the system of issuing permits. The Audit Bureau of Circulation, which functions under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, was responsible for assessing the circulation and print orders of newspapers and magazines and issuing certificates legitimizing these figures.
The bureau certificates became the basis on which journals were able to import proportionate quantities of newsprint and secure government-controlled advertising through the clearance given by the Press Information Department.
Corrupt practices have been associated with the ABC operation.
Government-media relations discussed
The current government of General Musharraf has considerable leverage over the press through its control over newsprint, its substantial budget for advertising and public interest campaigns, and its ability to enforce regulations. Influences on Editorial Policies Privately owned newspapers freely discuss public policy and criticize the government.
They report remarks made by opposition politicians, and their editorials reflect a wide range of views. The effort to ensure that newspapers carry their statements or press releases sometimes leads to undue pressure by local police, political parties, ethnic, sectarian, and religious groups, militant student organizations, and occasionally commercial interests.
Such pressure is a common feature of journalism and can include physical violence, sacking of offices, intimidation and beating of journalists, and interference with distribution of newspapers.
Journalists working in small provincial towns and villages encounter more difficulties from arbitrary local authorities and influential individuals than their big-city counterparts do.
Violence against and intimidation of journalists, however, is a nationwide problem. Government leaks, although not uncommon, are managed carefully; it is common knowledge that journalists, who are routinely underpaid, are on the unofficial payrolls of many competing interests, and the military or elements within it is presumed to be no exception.
For example, according to the All Pakistan Newspaper Society, favorable press coverage of the Prime Minister's family compound south of Lahore was widely understood to have been obtained for a price. Rumors of intimidation, heavy-handed surveillance, and even legal action to quiet the unduly curious or nondeferential reporter are common. Special-interest lobbies are not in existence in Pakistan as in the United States and elsewhere, but political pressure groups and leaders include the military, ulema clergylandowners, industrialists, and some small merchants.
Industrial Relations and Labor Unions Several unions represent Pakistani newspapers and their respective journalists. These groups have been actively involved in reviewing the government's draft of the Press Council of Pakistan Ordinance and the draft of Press, Newspaper Agencies Registration Ordinance APNEC and PFUJ and all their affiliated unions and units rejected the proposed setting up of a press council and press regulatory laws that the government decided to introduce to regulate the press.
Journalists objected to the inclusion of government representatives and the exclusion of working journalists from what was supposed to be a self-regulating rather than government-directed body.
Several years had lapsed since the previous award had been announced.
Media of Pakistan
Inflation as well as the preference of certain newspaper publishers to engage staff only on a contract basis meant that wages were no longer reflective of the cost-of-living realities. One media scholar estimated that well over 50 percent of newspaper employees are deliberately employed on a contract basis to avoid the enforcement of relevant industrial relations laws and awards by wage boards. In fact, at a World Press Freedom Day seminar in Karachi, journalist Sajjad Mir stated that very few newspapers in the country had implemented the Wage Board Award for journalists and employees.
Printing Methods Newspapers in Pakistan are mostly printed on offset. Printing and editing technologies have improved newspaper production over the years; however, the impact on circulation has not been significant. Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, commission of or incitement to an offense.
The Constitution of Pakistan, then, guarantees the freedom of expression and freedom of the press, subject to "reasonable restrictions" that may be imposed by law. It is the responsibility of the judiciary to determine the scope and parameters of the permissible freedoms and the extent of restrictions placed on their enjoyment. The judiciary can play a full and effective role only if it is free and independent of any and every kind or form of control or influence. Although the judiciary has generally been supportive of the freedom of expression and information, and sought to strengthen the mass media, the courts are subject to pressure from the executive branch because the president controls the appointment, transfer, and tenure of judges.
The position of the judiciary has been affected by periods of military rule, and a blow was dealt to the judiciary in January when Musharraf required all judges to take an oath of loyalty to his regime. The Supreme Court Justice and five colleagues refused and were dismissed. This was just one week before the Court was to hear cases challenging the legality of Musharraf's government. The constitution also outlines the power of the president to promulgate ordinances and to suspend fundamental rights during an emergency period.
Thus, following Musharraf's military takeover on October 12,he suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive. He appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as the supreme governing body of Pakistan. He dissolved both the Senate and the National Assembly. Newspaper editors also urged that the Freedom of Information Act and the amended Registration of Printing Press and Publication Ordinance be promulgated by the government, along with the Press Council Ordinance.
The International Press Institute IPI identified major concerns including the desire to create a quasi-judicial body without proper procedures in place to provide fairness and equity.
The IPI also expressed reservations about the proposed composition, its financing, and the terminology used in describing the ethical code, and made a number of recommendations for improving the draft ordinance. In a joint statement issued on the eve of World Press Freedom Day, leaders of the two organizations said they regretted that the Press and Publication Ordinance against which the journalists' community had striven for almost two decades had once again been revived and newspapers were being closed down under the same black law.
The statement said fresh attempts in the shape of the Press Council were being framed by Musharraf's government to silence the voice of the print media in the country. They said the PFUJ and APNEC had already rejected the idea of setting up the council and that news people were still being subjected to different pressure tactics, including threats to their lives.
They demanded that the government repeal more than 16 black laws, including the Press and Publication Ordinance, and to insure implementation of the labor laws by ending exploitation of the working journalists and newspaper workers.
They also called for enforcing the Freedom of Information Act to ensure easy access to information. The only other press laws in effect while the current proposed press laws are under review are general ones prohibiting publication of obscene material, inciting religious, parochial, or ethnic provocations, and anti-defamation provisions. In practice, registering a new publication is a simple administrative act and is not subjected to political or government scrutiny.
There are no registration or licensing processes for journalists. New newspapers and presses are required to register themselves with the local administration. Censorship Censorship pervades journalism history in Pakistan; certainly, the blackest censorship period came during General Zia's year military regime. Almost all journalists mention the press advice system as one of the most insidious means of censorship.
It specified that whoever "contravenes any provision of this regulation shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment which may extend to ten years, and shall be liable to fine or stripes [lashes] not to exceed twenty-five. He used intelligence operatives to infiltrate newsrooms and press unions. With so many spies doubling as reporters, and journalists moonlighting as government agents, trust became difficult for all.
APP is both the Govern-ment's own news agency and the official carrier of international wire service stories to the local media. Foreign books must pass government censors before being reprinted. Books and magazines may be imported freely, but are likewise subject to censorship for objectionable sexual or religious content.
Government-media relations discussed -Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF)
English language publications have not been affected by the direct proscription of books and magazines promulgated by the Chief Commissioner in Islamabad, who banned five Sindhi-language publications in the second half of for "objectionable material against Pakistan" i.
State-Press Relations The press has traditionally experienced the often harsh effects of Pakistan's political instability. When partition resulted in the establishment of Pakistan as an independent homeland for the Muslims, the Muslim League as a political party struggled with the tasks of leading the new country into stable statehood.
Factionalism, however, quickly contributed to instability, internal strife, incompetence, and corruption. The press at this point was largely a remnant of the Moslem press present during the struggle for independence, and it was seen as aggravating the problems being faced by keeping these issues out in front of the people.
Thus, the government began its long history of attempting to control the press through arrests, the banning of certain publications, and other punitive measures. Between andpolitical turbulence intensified with the assassination of the country's first prime minister, Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, in and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly in However, bythe Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was enforced; it contained an article specifically devoted to freedom of speech.
The Constitution lasted less than three years when it was abrogated by the imposition of martial law in October A new enforcement of the constitution in occurred with the removal of martial law by President Ayub Khan.
Although this constitution continued the recognition of an initial concept of freedom of expression, in reality, a military ruler imposed the constitution, and it contained no separate chapter on fundamental rights.
The press and the public commented on the implications of living under a constitution devoid of mention of such basic rights, which resulted in Constitutional Amendment No. However, injust one year after the adoption of the new constitution, the Press and Publications Ordinance PPO came into being.
This ordinance contained the harshest of laws curtailing freedom of expression and the progressive development of the media and leading to the March relinquishing of power by President Ayub Khan to General Yahya Khan who imposed martial law.
General Khan relied heavily on one of the measures of this ordinance, the system of "press advice" given out by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in order to avoid publication of news and reports deemed unsuitable for public consumption.
It was also during this period that newspapers and magazines known for their independent and progressive views were first taken over by the government. Eventually the National Press Trust, created intook over these journals and acted as a front to control a section of the press. On the outside, the aim was to consolidate into one law different provisions for "preventive detention of persons" and "control of persons and publications for reasons connected with the maintenance of public order.
With amendments in andthis law empowered the government to ban the printing of publications, to enter and search premises, and to prohibit import of newspapers, among other measures.
These powers have been used by succeeding governments right up until the government of Musharraf. Inthe government also took over the principal news agency of the country, the APP, arguing that "administrative and financial breakdown" justified such a move.
Instead of allowing private enterprise to improve the quality of the news agency, the government saw this as an opportunity to control what news would be supplied to the print media, to radio, and to the outside world.
In spite of such repressive times, the press took a bold stand in providing alternative sources of news through an independent press. It was also during this time that the Press and Publications Ordinance collected under one law a number of excessive regulatory measures and punitive concepts that had previously existed in different laws and were now applied heavily to control the press.
This press law PPO endured for 25 years before being repealed in September In Decemberwhen the break-up of Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh occurred, General Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as President and Pakistan's first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator who continued to use martial law up to April when an interim constitution was adopted, prior to the enactment of a new constitution by the National Assembly in August Bhutto, however, reacting to criticism by various members of the press, imprisoned editors and publishers on the pretext of national security.
The next five years, from torepresented the beginnings of democracy; however, they were marred by repressive actions toward the press. The new constitution, although formulated on the principles of democracy, human rights, and freedom of speech, did not deliver on these promises.