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Israel declared its independence on 14 May The next day, the British Mandate officially expired and, in an official cablegramthe seven-member Arab Leagueincluding Lebanon, publicly proclaimed their aim of creating a democratic "United State of Palestine" in place of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
The League soon entered the conflict on the side of the Palestinian Arabs, thus beginning the international phase of the Arab—Israeli War. They expected an easy and quick victory in what came to be called the Arab—Israeli War. The Lebanese army joined the other Arab armies in the invasion. It crossed into the northern Galilee. By the end of the conflict, however, it had been repulsed by Israeli forces, which occupied South Lebanon. Israel signed armistice agreements with each of its invading neighbors.
The armistice with Lebanon was signed on 23 March By the conclusion of that war, Israel had signed ceasefire agreements with all of the neighbouring Arab countries.
However, it was understood by all the state parties at the time that the armistice agreements were not peace treaties with Israel, nor the final resolution of the conflict between them, including the borders. After the war, the United Nations estimated Palestinian Arabsout an estimated 1. The refugees could not work, travel, or engage in political activities.
Israel-Lebanon relations | The Times of Israel
Initially the refugees were too impoverished to develop a leadership capable of representing their concerns. Black September in Jordan and Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon The PLO, from its inception in by Ahmed Shukeribegan executing numerous terror attacks on Israeli civilians in attempt to fulfill its mission charter's vow to pursue in "the path of holy war al- jihad " until the establishment of a Palestinian State in place of the State of Israel.
From onwards, the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO began conducting raids from Lebanon into Israel, and Israel began making retaliatory raids against Lebanese villages to encourage the Lebanese people to themselves deal with the fedayeen. Inthe PLO attempted to overthrow a reigning monarch, King Hussein of Jordanand following his quashing of the rebellion in what Arab historians call Black Septemberthe PLO leadership and their troops fled from Jordan  to Syria and finally Lebanon, where cross-border violence increased.
With headquarters now in BeirutPLO factions recruited new members from the Palestinian refugee camps. With its own army operating freely in Lebanon, the PLO had created a state within a state. Members of Israel's elite Special Forces landed by boat in Lebanon on 9 Apriland with the aid of Israeli intelligence agents, infiltrated the PLO headquarters in Beirut and assassinated several members of its leadership.
In the PLO altered its focus to include political elements, necessary for a dialogue with Israel. Lebanese Civil War — Main article: Governmental power had been allotted among the different religious groups by the National Pact based partially on the results of the census. Changes in demographics and increased feelings of deprivation by certain ethnic groups, as well as Israeli—Palestinian clashes in the south of the county all contributed to the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War.
Fearing loss of commercial access to the port of Beirutin June Syria intervened in the civil war to support the Maronite dominated government,  and by October had 40, troops stationed within Lebanon. Operation Litani Main articles: By the end of the incident, nine hijackers  and 38 Israeli civilians including 13 children were dead. After killing a police officer who had discovered their presence, they took a father and his daughter hostage in an apartment building.
After fleeing with the hostages from police back to the beach, a shootout killed one policeman and two of the militants. Kuntar then executed the hostages before he and the remaining invader were captured.
The Israeli army laid siege to Beirut. During the conflict, according to Lebanese sources, between 15,—20, people were killed, mostly civilians. The National Assembly of Lebanon narrowly chose Bachir Gemayel as president-electbut when he was assassinated on 14 SeptemberIsrael reoccupied West Beirut and Maronite militias carried out the Sabra and Shatila massacre. The agreement called for a staged Israeli withdrawal over the next eight to twelve weeks and the establishment of a "security zone" to be patrolled by the Lebanese army in southern Lebanon,  but was conditional on Syrian withdrawal as well.
In Augustas Israel withdrew from the areas southeast of Beirut to the Awali River Lebanese factions clashed for control of the freed territory. During the South Lebanon conflict the Hezbollah militia waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon and their South Lebanon Army proxies. In Marchthe National Assembly of Lebanon passed an amnesty law that pardoned all political crimes prior to its enactment, and in Maythe militias—with the important exceptions of Hezbollah and the SLA—were dissolved, and the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild themselves as Lebanon's only major non-sectarian institution.
InHezbollah won ten out of seats in the Lebanese National Assembly. The given reason was to retaliate for the death of IDF soldiers in the "security zone" which Israel had created in in southern Lebanon to protect its northern borders from both Hezbollah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine — General Command. On 10 July Hezbollah undertook an operation in which 5 Israeli soldiers were killed; a further attack on 19 July caused several further casualties to the IDF, and on the 23rd.
Cross-border raids were frequent from both sides, and Operation Accountability arose from the escalation in hostilities. Israeli forces also destroyed infrastructure such as power stations and bridges. According to Michael Brecher, the aim of Operation Accountability was to precipitate a large flight of Lebanese refugees from the south towards Beirut and thereby put the Lebanese government under pressure to rein in Hezbollah. A truce agreement brokered by the US secured an Israeli undertaking to stop attacks north of its security zone in Lebanon, and a Hezbollah agreement to desist from firing rockets into Israel.
Israel conducted massive air raids and extensive shelling in southern Lebanon. The conflict ended on 26 April with the Israeli-Lebanese Ceasefire Understanding  in which both Hezbollah and Israel agreed to, respect the "rules of the game" and forgo attacks on civilians. Eighteen people were reported to have been injured.
Israel–Lebanon relations - Wikipedia
The South Lebanon Army's equipment and positions largely fell into the hands of Hezbollah. Lebanon celebrates 25 May, Liberation Dayas a national holiday. Border clashes, assassinations September — July Main articles: The ticket swept all 23 parliamentary seats allotted for south Lebanon in that region's first election since Benyamin Avraham, and Staff Sgt. In Octoberunder the sponsorship of the United States and the then Soviet UnionMiddle East peace talks were held in MadridSpainwhere Israel and a majority of its Arab neighbors conducted direct bilateral negotiations to seek a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace based on UN Security Council Resolutions and and on Lebanon and the concept of "land for peace.
In MarchSyria and Israel held another round of Madrid talks; the Lebanon track did not reconvene. In response, the militant Shia group Hezbollah formed with Syrian and Iranian backing. They conducted guerrilla warfare against Israel to resist the occupation. Inthe Israeli army burned down olive groves to "deprive Hezbollah guerrillas of cover". The day operation caused hundreds of thousands of civilians in south Lebanon to flee their homes. On April 18, several Israeli shells struck refugee compounds, killing civilians sheltered there.
Throughout the s discontent had been growing in Israel about the occupation of parts of Lebanon. Discontent increased as a result of a helicopter crash that killed 73 Israeli soldiers bound for Lebanon.
Ehud Barak campaigned for prime minister on a platform of withdrawing from Lebanon. The SLA collapsed and about 6, SLA members and their families fled the country, although more than 2, had returned by December With the withdrawal of Israeli forces, many in Lebanon began calling for a review of the continued presence of Syrian troops, estimated in late at approximately 25, The destruction of Lebanese infrastructure that the Israeli military left behind, particularly water infrastructure, was devastating to Southern Lebanon.
The international border between Lebanon and Israel is still to be determined in the framework of a peace agreement. In August, the Government of Lebanon deployed over 1, police and soldiers to the former security zone, but Hezbollah also maintained observation posts and conducted patrols along the Blue Line.
While Lebanon and Syria agreed to respect the Blue Line, both have registered objections and continue to argue that Israel has not fully withdrawn from Lebanese soil. As regional tension escalated with the Palestinian intifada in SeptemberHezbollah cited Blue Line discrepancies when it reengaged Israel on October 7, taking three Israeli soldiers captive in an area known as Shebaa Farms. This largely unpopulated Israeli controlled territory along the border between Lebanon and Syria is claimed by Lebanon, although the United Nations and Israel agree that Shebaa Farms is part of Syria.
Since the beginning of the Cedar Revolutionhopes had increased of an Israel-Lebanon peace treaty. We don't want wars.
We hope that the peace process moves ahead with us, with the Syrians, with all the Arab countries," but he added that Lebanon would not sign a separate peace treaty as Jordan and Egypt have done. Other Lebanese leaders draw an even harder line. It was uncovered in the cache of diplomatic cables released by Wikileaks that inLebanese Defense Minister had sent messages to Israel via the United States stating the Lebanese Army would refrain from getting involved in a future conflict between Israel and Hezbollah and that the army, as quoted in the cables "will move to pre-position food, money, and water with these units so they can stay on their bases when Israel comes for Hezbollah — discreetly, Murr added.
Ambassador to Lebanon Michele Sison, the dispatcher of the cable, "Murr offered some ideas aimed at avoiding turning the Christian population against Israel when the next war with Hezbollah occurs Many were expected to receive the death penaltywhich the Lebanese cabinet announced it intended to carry out.
While Israel's find is within its territorial exclusive economic zone, the dispute stems from the possibility that the gas field spans to Lebanon's boundary. A general principle in such a situation is the Rule of capture where each side is permitted to lift as much as it can on its side.
Israel has already started exploration and construction on its side, while Lebanese authorities have not yet officially demarcated its exclusive economic zone or initiated a process of attracting bids for exploration rights. Beirut had previously warned the American Noble Energy company not to approach its territory.