History and cultural relations - Iroquois
Many historians argue that the hostility of the Iroquois toward the French was caused by Samuel Champlain when in he accompanied a Huron war party . In the early s, the relations between the French and Iroquois were strained, at best. In , three Iroquois chiefs were killed by Samuel de. The Iroquois Wars, also known as the Beaver Wars and the French and Cayuga and Seneca), numerous other Iroquoian groups and French colonial forces. George T. Hunt, Wars of the Iroquois: A Study in Intertribal Trade Relations ().
After concentrated Haudenosaunee attacks, the Erie were absorbed in Renewed hostilities in —60 on a wide front greatly strained the confederacy, and the Haudenosaunee again sought peace with the French.
By the Haudenosaunee had absorbed the Susquehannock to the south and had moved westward into the Ohio Valley, where they fought the Illinois and Miami nations.
Legacy Over the course of five conflicts, the Haudenosaunee succeeded in breaking up every one of the groups that had surrounded the confederacy. However, the victories did not bring them the prosperity they sought.
The French and Iroquois Wars (1642-1698)
The treaty of had allowed the French to extend their trade in the north and, with explorer Louis Jollietthey advanced through the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River.
As part of a broader conflict between French and English, the Haudenosaunee attacked Lachine in force in see Lachine Raid. However, with the aid of the Troupes de la Marinethe defenders eventually forced the Haudenosaunee to make peace. After going through the woods to a target, at the appointed time, they would quickly burst from the wood to cause the greatest panic among their enemy. After the attack, the Iroquois could return quickly to their boats and leave before any significant resistance could be put together.
Despite their larger numbers, they were not centralized enough to mount a united defense and were unable to withstand the Iroquois.
Iroquois - History and Cultural Relations
Several tribes ultimately moved west beyond the Mississippi Riverleaving much of the Ohio Valley, southern Michigan, and southern Ontario depopulated. Several large Anishinaabe military forces, numbering in the thousands, remained to the north of Lakes Huron and Superior. They later were decisive in rolling back the Iroquois advance. Beginning in the s, the French began to explore and settle the Ohio and Illinois Country from the Mississippi and Ohio rivers.
There they discovered the Algonquin tribes of that region were locked in warfare with the Iroquois. The French established the post of Tassinong to trade with the western tribes. The Iroquois destroyed it to retain control of the fur trade with the Europeans. During the course of this conflict, in the Iroquois also drove the Siouan -speaking Mannahoac tribe out of the northern Virginia Piedmont region. The Iroquois claimed the land by right of conquest as a hunting ground.
The English acknowledged this claim in and again in They acquired the land from the Iroquois by a treaty. During a raid into the Illinois Country inthe Iroquois captured numerous prisoners and destroyed a sizable Miami settlement. The Miami asked for aid from others in the Anishinaabeg Confederacy, and a large force gathered to track down the Iroquois.
Using their new firearms, the Confederacy laid an ambush near modern South Bend, Indiana. They attacked and destroyed most of the Iroquois army. Their own tribe lacked the manpower to colonize the large area. Many of the former inhabitants of the territory began to return. The English had grown fearful of the Iroquois and hoped an alliance with Susquehannock would help block the northern tribes' advance on the English colonies.
In the Iroquois sent an army of warriors into the Susquehannock territory.
Beaver Wars - Wikipedia
They repulsed the army, but the invasion prompted the colony of Maryland to declare war on the Iroquois. By supplying Susquehannock forts with artillery, the English in Maryland changed the balance of power away from the Iroquois. The Susquehannock took the upper hand and began to invade Iroquois territory, where they caused significant damage.
This warfare continued intermittently for 11 years. They terminated their alliance with the Susquehannock. In the militias of Virginia and Maryland captured and executed the chiefs of the Susquehannock, whose growing power they feared. The Iroquois made quick work of the rest of the nation. They drove the warriors from traditional territory  and absorbed the survivors in Resumption of war with France[ edit ] As the English began to move into the former Dutch territory of upper New York State, they began to form close ties with the Iroquois.
They sought to use them as a buffer and force to hinder French colonial expansion. They soon began to supply the Iroquois with firearms much as the Dutch had and encouraged them to disrupt French interests. His attempts to revive the fur-trade in the frontier led to renewed hostilities with the Iroquois. His efforts competed with those of the Iroquois to control the traffic and they started attacking the French again. The war lasted ten years and was as bloody as the first.
Colonists quickly armed the Algonquin tribes, evening the odds between the Iroquois and their enemies. With the renewal of hostilities, the local militia of New France was stiffened after by a small force of regular French navy troops, the Compagnies Franches de la Marine.
- Beaver Wars
- Indigenous-French Relations
- Iroquois Wars
The latter were to constitute the longest-serving unit of French regular troops in New France. Over the years, the men identified with the colony. The officer corps became completely Canadian. Essentially, these forces can be considered as Canada's first standing professional armed force. Officers' commissions, both in the militia and in the Compagnies Franches, became coveted amongst the upper class of the colony.
The militia together with members of the Compagnies Franches, dressed for woodland travel similarly to their Algonquin Indian allies, and grew to specialize in the swift and mobile brand of warfare termed la petite guerre. It was characterized by long expeditions through the forests and quick raids on enemy encampments—the same kind of warfare practiced by the Iroquois and other Natives.
In JuneGovernor Denonville and Pierre de Troyes set out with a well-organized force to Fort Frontenacwhere they met with the 50 hereditary sachems of the Iroquois Confederacy from their Onondaga council fire. They had been lulled into meeting under a flag of truce. Denonville seized, chained, and shipped the 50 Iroquois chiefs to MarseillesFrance, to be used as galley slaves.
He then ravaged the land of the Senecaincluding their capital of Ganondagan. This site was previously used by La Salle for a fort named Fort Conti from toand was later used for Fort Niagarawhich still exists to this day. In Septemberthe French used 3, militia and regulars to attack the Mohawk Iroquois in a punitive raid on their territory.War of the American Indians Documentary on the History of the Iroquois 2
They proceeded down the Richelieu River and marched through Iroquois territory, but did not find many warriors. They burned their villages and stored crops, destroying an estimated 1. Many Iroquois died from starvation during the following winter. The destruction of the Seneca and Mohawk lands infuriated the Iroquois Confederacy. This, coupled with the dishonourable loss of their sachemsdemanded they set out to terrorize New France as never before.
Denonville's regulars were dissolved and dispersed to towns across the land, attempting to protect New France's homes and families. The Iroquois destroyed farmsteads and whole families were slaughtered or captured.
On August 4,Lachinea small town adjacent to Montrealwas burned to the ground. Fifteen hundred Iroquois warriors had been harassing Montreal defences for many months prior. Denonville was finally exhausted and defeated. His tenure was followed by the return of Frontenacwho replaced Denonville as governor for the next nine years — Frontenac had been arranging a new plan of attack to mollify the effects of the Iroquois in North America and realized the true danger the imprisonment of the sachems created.
He located the 13 surviving leaders, and they returned with him to New France in October The death of Major Richard Waldron during the raid on Dover. During the concurrent King William's Warthe French organized raiding parties with native allies against English settlements, which had supported the Iroquois Confederacy.
During King William's War —the French created raiding parties with native allies to attack English colonial settlements, as the English had used the Iroquois against the French. The French and their allies killed settlers in the raids and carried some back to Canada. Settlers in New England raised money to redeem their captives, but some were adopted into the Native tribes. The French government generally did not intervene when the Natives kept the captives. Throughout the s the French and their allies also continued to raid deep into Iroquois, destroying Mohawk villages inand later raiding Seneca, Oneida, and Onondaga villages.
The English and Iroquois banded together for operations aimed at New France, but these were largely ineffectual. The most successful incursion resulted in the Battle of La Prairie. Because France claimed dominion over the Iroquois, the French offensive was not halted by the Treaty of Ryswick that brought peace between France and England, and ended overt English participation in the conflict.
Great Peace of Montreal Finally, inthe Iroquois began to see the English as becoming a greater threat than the French. The English had begun colonizing Pennsylvania in The continued colonial growth there began to encroach on the southern border of the Iroquois territory.
After nearly 50 years of warfare, they began to believe that it would be impossible to ever destroy them. They decided that befriending the Iroquois would be the easiest way to ensure their monopoly on the northern fur trade and help stop English expansion. As soon as the English heard of the treaty they immediately set about to prevent it from being agreed to. The missionaries centred their evangelization efforts on the sedentary, horticultural and strategically located Huron-Wendat confederacy see Ste.
Marie Among the Hurons. Factionalism that arose out of favouritism shown to converts and epidemics that decimated the population virtually brought the mission to a close. On two occasions, the Jesuits were spared execution or exile on charges of witchcraft only by French threats to cut off the trade on which the Wendat had become dependent.
Eight Jesuits, including the leader of the Ste. Following the dispersal in —49 by the Haudenosauneethe missionaries turned to other groups in the Great Lakes basin, including the Iroquois Confederacy, to little effect. Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons: Although the Innu did not remain long, some Abenaki refugees came to settle, and finally Wendat who escaped from the Haudenosaunee conquest of their territory.
Eventually there were reserves near each of the three French bridgeheads of settlement: The French sought to attract the Indigenous people close to their settlements with the view to having them adopt French agricultural sedentary life. The English, in New England for example, drove Indigenous people off their traditional lands into the hinterland in order to establish agricultural holdings and permanent settlement.
Nevertheless, reserves in Canada were also relocated from time to time at ever greater distances from the principal towns, mostly because of the desire of the missionaries to stem illegal trade and isolate Indigenous converts from the temptations of alcohol, prostitution and gambling. It was often on the reserves that canoemen, scouts and warriors were recruited for trade and war. It is possible that this political organization, whose membership evolved over the years, dates back to the early days of the French regime at the time when the first reserves were created in the St.
Beginning with European fishermen and sailors along the Atlantic seaboard, the practice spread into the hinterland as traders and interpreters, later unlicensed coureurs des boisand finally garrison troops came into contact with hinterland communities.
Voyageurs and canoemen travelling to and from the upper country of Canada for the fur trade relied on Indigenous women to make and break camp, cook, carry baggage and serve as mistresses.
Canon law forbade the marriage of Catholics with pagans, so missionaries would often instruct and baptize adults and children in order to regularize such unions. InLouis XV forbade most mixed marriages; nevertheless, the rise of mixed communities in the Great Lakes basin, particularly along Lake Superiorindicated the prevalence of the practice.
Responses were drafted to royal orders in the light of these deliberations, new directives were suggested and these were all sent to France by the last vessels in the autumn. The Indigenous voice was an important element in this convoluted form of royal despotism. Another aspect of the dilution of absolutism was the avoidance of the imposition of the harsh aspects of French criminal law on Indigenous defendants.
As members of allied nations they would be tried by a military tribunal rather than a royal court. These tribunals simply turned them over to their tribal councils to be dealt with according to their customary practices. It was an early form of parallel justice that promoted good community relations even in interracial cases. Painting by Frances Ann Hopkins. Champlainby supporting his Algonquian and Wendat trading partners inearned the long-lasting enmity of the Iroquois.
The Meskwaki were viewed as hostile from until their dispersal in