Level of nurse education in relation to their perception of caring and patient satisfaction Nursing teams are made up of members of both groups. .. Patients appear to value more instrumental and technical skills that nurses. Writing skills Clinical reports, care plans, documentation of care Agency reports, best practices Human caring and Morality, ethics, and legality relationship skills and appearance Teaching skills Individuals and groups, clients, coworkers. Abstract: Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring and the caring moment are based in . including psychoanalysis, group work, psychosynthesis of . for the transpersonal relationship as the person moves toward self-actualization. . nurses practice nursing is the accomplishment of skills and tasks; this is.
It is generally a long, relatively stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship. Deterioration — Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble. Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure.
Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others.
Ending — The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.
Terminating a relationship[ edit ] According to the latest Systematic Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors associated with Life Satisfaction dating fromstable and secure relationships are beneficial, and correspondingly, relationship dissolution is harmful. Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth. They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e.
This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual. Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships.
Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
One reason cited for divorce is infidelity. The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators. Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship.
Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends. Individuals in long-distance relationshipsLDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs.
LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days. Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs.
Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction.
Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships.
Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills. Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior. Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing.
Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life.
Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity. Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous.
Dismissing individuals are low on anxiety over abandonment and high in avoidance of intimacy. Dismissing people are usually self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy and are independent and indifferent towards acquiring romantic partners. They are very fearful of rejection, mistrustful of others, and tend to be suspicious and shy in everyday life.
Attachment styles are created during childhood but can adapt and evolve to become a different attachment style based on individual experiences.
On the contrary, a good romantic relationship can take a person from an avoidant attachment style to more of a secure attachment style. Romantic love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world.
Attraction — Premeditated or automatic, attraction can occur between acquaintances, coworkers, lovers, etc. Studies have shown that attraction can be susceptible to influence based on context and externally induced arousal, with the caveat that participants be unaware of the source of their arousal.
A study by Cantor, J. As supported by a series of studies, Zillman and colleagues showed that a preexisting state of arousal can heighten reactions to affective stimuli.
One commonly studied factor is physical proximity also known as propinquity. The MIT Westgate studies famously showed that greater physical proximity between incoming students in a university residential hall led to greater relationship initiation.
Another important factor in the initiation of new relationships is similarity. Put simply, individuals tend to be attracted to and start new relationships with those who are similar to them.
These similarities can include beliefs, rules, interests, culture, education, etc. Individuals seek relationships with like others because like others are most likely to validate shared beliefs and perspectives, thus facilitating interactions that are positive, rewarding and without conflict. Development — Development of interpersonal relationships can be further split into committed versus non-committed romantic relationships, which have different behavioral characteristics.
Discussion We did not find major significant differences between carative factors and level of nurse education, except in one carative factor.
Differences in perceptions of carative factors between health care institutions are probably the result of different institutional factors. The results can be of great benefit to nurse administrators and educators, indicating the factors that must be taken into account for enhancing patient satisfaction.
Emphasis on caring theories should be placed in nursing education and their application in nursing practice. The first of these two main domains in holistic nursing related to professional knowledge and expertise and the second to psychological and spiritual consideration of clients Pajnkihar, To be able to perform a caring action, nurses need an artistic as well as a scientific knowledge and expertise Pajnkihar, Nursing education plays an important role in the acquisition and advancement of caring attributes Labrague et al.
When caring is not present, non-caring consequences and dissatisfaction with care, where the person feels like an object, can occur. Caring has to be done in practice and research Watson,as lack of caring is a major threat to health care quality.
Because of the rapid advances in knowledge and technology, knowledge about care in practice must be constantly re-examined Pajnkihar, A study by Snowden et al. As there is a lack of research relating to the personal characteristics of nurses such as education and caring behaviors, and a lack of empirical data on the relationships between carative factors as core of caring and patient satisfaction in Slovenian health care institutions, we decided to explore these relationships.
Trustful and respectful interpersonal relationships are extremely important for preserving human dignity Pajnkihar, These carative factors are described as consisting of: Carative factors and caritas processes facilitate healing, honour, wholeness and contribute to the evolution of humanity Watson, Patient satisfaction as nurse sensitive patient outcome Patient satisfaction is one of the established outcome indicators of the quality and the efficiency of healthcare systems Chow et al.
A relationship was found between patient satisfaction and patient-perceived nurse caring Larrabee et al. We can say that patient satisfaction is a response to nurse caring Sherwood, However, there are many other related factors that can influence that perceptions. Level of nurse education in relation to their perception of caring and patient satisfaction Nurse education should emphasize a holistic, individualized, and client-centred nursing care Pajnkihar, Though it is also important, there is a lack of research relating caring perceptions to the personal characteristics of nurses, such as the level of education Patiraki et al.
Some researchers found no relationships between level of nurse education and patient satisfaction Patiraki et al. The characteristics of nurses contribute to the care delivered in healthcare organizations Idvall et al.
Our nursing educational system has been reformed several times in the last decades Prosen, We have had 2, 2. When referring to nurses in this research we mean nurses with an associate degree, diploma degree or master degree. Nursing assistants are those with 4-year secondary school vocational education. Nursing teams are made up of members of both groups. They are also involved in holistic patient care as team leaders at different levels of management.
More specifically, this study aimed to: Methods This study was conducted using a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Sample and setting Due to the large size of the potential target population for the study and accessibility of the selected hospitals, convenience sampling was used for recruiting nurses and nursing assistants providing bedside care. Nurses working in management were excluded from the study. We collected data from four different healthcare institutions in Slovenia, ranging from large university clinical centers to small general hospitals and different units.
The reason for this choice was the large regional coverage achieved by including the two largest secondary healthcare level institutions and two hospitals from other regions. Despite the small number of institutions included in the study, their geographical distribution contribute to better generalizability of the results.
Questionnaires were distributed to 1, nursing assistants and nurses, representing The questionnaires returned gave an overall response rate of The same four health care institutions were used to collect data from patients who were discharged during the time of the study.
Questionnaires were distributed to 1, patients and questionnaires were returned, giving an overall response rate of Measures Two questionnaires were used, one for nurses and nursing assistants and another for patients.
Questions were adapted to the local environment. The item questionnaire uses a 1-to-5 Likert scale.