Forty networks of epiphytic orchid and host tree species were assessed in Brazilian gallery forests. The relationship among families was based on Phylomatic reference .. Probably because of logistical difﬁculties related to. About three quarters of all orchid species are epiphytes, which is a term that refers to plants that live and grow upon other plants. Orchids that grow on a host tree. PDF | The survival chance of epiphytic orchids today not only depends on the natural Principal component analysis of host tree species for all the 23 occurring epiphytic orchid species in the study area based on .. serious problems for epiphytic communities. relationship within the canopy ecosystem.
This implies that epiphytic orchids utilize two different strategies for sustaining water balance: Our results also show that Dendrobium species with thin cuticles tend to have pseudobulbs with high water storage capacity that compensates for their faster rates of water loss.
These outcomes contribute to our understanding of the adaptive water-use strategies in Dendrobium species, which is beneficial for the conservation and cultivation of epiphytic orchids. Cuticles, Dendrobium, pseudobulb, relative water content, water conservation, water loss Introduction Vascular epiphytes live non-parasitically on other living plants for support, and are often rich in tropical forests Benzing They play critical roles in the hydrological and nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems.
The biomass produced by vascular epiphytes in many canopies can be significant, especially in tropical montane cloud forests Nadkarni et al.
Symbiotic Relationship Between an Orchid & a Tree | Garden Guides
As structural elements of forests, these epiphytes are important for maintaining biological diversity and abundance because they provide food and habitats for numerous birds, insects and mammals in the forest canopy Nadkarni and Matelson ; Sillett ; Treseder et al. Unlike terrestrial plants, their roots have no contact with the soil. Therefore, water stress is a major limitation to their survival, growth and distribution Zotz and Hietz ; Laube and Zotz ; Zotz and Bader For adapting to limited water availability, vascular epiphytes utilize suites of morphological and anatomical adaptations in their leaves, stems and roots, including thickened cuticles, stomata surrounded by trichomes, a reduction in transpiring surfaces through symodial growth, and development of aerial root systems Moreira et al.
The leaf cuticles of vascular epiphytes may act as efficient barriers against water loss after their stomata close Helbsing et al. Furthermore, these types of epiphytes have greater capacity for foliar water uptake and tend to have thinner hydrenchymal and cuticle layers Gotsch et al.
Other mechanisms for storing water might involve the production of tissues such as succulent leaves and pseudobulbs, which are common features in vascular epiphytes Sinclair ; Zimmerman ; Stern and Morris The hydrenchyma in succulent leaves from numerous epiphytes can store water to buffer the effects of reduced water supplies during periods of drought Zotz and Bader ; Ogburn and Edwards In addition to these multiple morphological and anatomical adaptations to water shortage, vascular epiphytes demonstrate differences in their phenology and photosynthetic pathways.
In Orchidaceae, some deciduous epiphytic orchids may react to relatively long-lasting drought by shedding their leaves to reduce the surface area available for transpiration. When compared with the performance of C3 photosynthesis, crassulacean acid metabolism CAM in many epiphytes plays an important role in improving carbon gains and water use Motomura et al.
In some orchids, pseudobulbs are very short, thick and bulb-shaped stems that can bear one or more leaves at the top or along the stem axes.
Epiphyte - Wikipedia
These structures are present among most of the epiphytic orchids in tropical and subtropical regions. As storage organs for water, carbohydrates and minerals, pseudobulbs are of central importance to the growth and survival of those orchids Goh and Kluge ; Ng and Hew Furthermore, they have critical roles during the processes of vegetative growth, flowering and reproduction Zimmerman ; Blanchard and Runkle Epiphytes never touch the ground; they are adapted to live on the air!
Epiphytic plants including Cactaceae, Bromeliaceae and ferns growink on a trunk.
They have amazing adaptations as a result of this habit, such as: Hollow structure left by a stranges fig after killing its hoste. Epiphytes are largely responsible for the extremely rich biodiversity that makes tropical rainforests the most complex ecosystems on Earth.
Epiphytes, plants that do not need soil
Water accumulated on a Bromeliad. Epiphytes diversity Currently, approximately 25, species are epiphytes.
Most common and known epiphytes are Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae families and ferns. Epiphytism has appeared several times throughout evolution and we found examples in other tropical spermatophytes plants with seed and trunk like Ericaceae, Gesneriaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae and Piperaceae and also in seedless plants lichens, mosses and liver of temperate climates.
Orchids Orchids have the highest number of epiphytic in the world, with 20 tropical epiphytic genera. The genus with much epiphytes species number are Bulbophyllum and Dendrobium The genus of epiphytic orchids Phalaenopsis 60 species is cultivated worldwide because of its beauty.
In fact, many plants used in interior gardening are epiphytes because they have few nutrients and water requirements. Among orchids, we wanted to highlight a species known for a different reason: It was imported to Reunion island and Madagascar currently first world producers by the Spaniards when they discovered their amazing flavor.
Symbiotic Relationship Between an Orchid & a Tree
The vanilla crops imitate their naturally grow on trees, and vanilla plants are not grown on ground, but on logs. The part of the vanilla plant that is consumed is the still immature fruit, after a curing process.
Vanilla cultivation on logs. Vanilla is another example, as it is only pollinated by Mexican native bees and hummingbirds, so pollination does not occur naturally in the cultivation areas and it must be done by hand. Bromeliads Bromeliaceae includes more than 3, neotropical species, most of them epiphytic. The most species rich genera are TillandsiaPitcairniaVriesiaAechmea and Puya The leaves of bromeliads grow in rosette facilitating the accumulation of water.