Edward IV of England - Wikipedia
My research on the story of King Richard III began in the s, and focused the proposition that she had a relationship with King Edward IV. Everything you ever wanted to know about King Edward IV in Richard III, written by masters of this stuff just for you. Richard III () was the last Yorkist king of England, whose to marry his niece, Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV and.
She accepted him as king, and he allowed her and her daughters to emerge from sanctuary and provided for them. Unfortunately, his good intentions could not be implemented in a reign of only two years or in the face of serious opposition. Although he abolished the highly unpopular forced gifts benevolences employed by his brother, sheer financial desperation forced him to revive them once again.
He could not afford the cost of two years of mobilization against the threat of invasion from France. Reluctantly, Richard replaced the natural rulers of southern England, who had rejected his rule, with his own northern supporters, which some southerners equated with tyranny.
His position was gravely weakened by the deaths of his only son, Prince Edward, in and his queen in This plan, however—if it ever was a plan—was vetoed by his supporters and was highly unpopular. Many members of the Yorkist establishment and county elites joined Buckingham and the Wydevilles in the rebellion of southern England late in Although Richard suppressed it, most of the leaders escaped to Brittany, where on Christmas Day they recognized the exiled Henry Tudor as king.
So hostile were the Yorkist exiles to Richard III that they were more concerned with deposing him than with the identity of his replacement. The scale and course of the battle and even the site where it took place are obscure and much disputed. A key role was certainly played by the Stanley family, whose northwestern contingents joined Tudor late in the battle. Fighting bravely, Richard himself was killed.
Henry VII became the first Tudor king. Apparently a small man, Richard suffered from scoliosis a type of curvature of the spinebut evidently he was neither a hunchback nor physically incapacitated as reputed. More recently, Ricardians have argued for his merits—as a good husband, a pious Christian, a loyal subject, ruler of the north, and a king committed to good governance.
The truth lies in between. He possessed many qualities expected of a medieval king: Effective kingship required his charismaeloquence, persuasiveness, egotism, self-interest, and ruthlessness. Nice people did not make good kings. Unfortunately, his title was widely rejected, and his accession proved a political miscalculation. His usurpation was the result not of consent but of temporarily overwhelming force.
However sincere his protestations of the public good, ultimately Richard took the crown because of self-interest, and afterward he appeared to be fighting for his own benefit only.
George was declared of age on 10 July Although still only sixteen years old, like other royalty George's majority was advanced, presumably to make him more politically useful. If not quite of the front rank, such munificence raised George above all contemporary nobles except Warwick, Buckingham, and Norfolk.
George had estates in Northumberland, Yorkshire, Kent and the West Country when he did homage in Julybut it was to Tutbury in Staffordshire that he departed in November. Since Queen Margaret had based herself in the area late in the s, Tutbury Castle may not have been altogether neglected, but we know that Clarence undertook great building works there, scarcely a recognisable vestige of which survives or is recorded the Rous Roll.
Presumably it was adapted to accommodate the enormous household of anticipated in in his household ordinance. That proper regulation of his household was desirable is suggested by the Lichfield prostitute frequented by fourteen members of his household in Goodman. Great lords sought order and accountability with conspicuous consumption and splendid display. Still in his teens, he rated himself most highly. At the very least he needed to marry a great heiress to raise his revenues up to his expenses.
At this point, he parted company with his brother Edward IV. Evidently he wanted more than he had and what the king gave him. He had lost the county of Chester, most probably on Edward's marriage, and had ceased to be heir to the throne with the birth of Princess Elizabeth in He was not alone if he believed that the male line should take priority, nor if he doubted the validity of Edward's marriage and hence the legitimacy of his children.
Moreover he wanted to marry the eldest daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker, the greatest possible heiress, who may have brought with her promise of an immediate subsidy; Edward, however, objected and hoped to arrange a marriage diplomatically advantageous to himself.
George married Isabel Neville nevertheless on 12 July and joined Warwick at once in rebellion against the king. Whatever his reasons, this was a breach of the allegiance due from him as a subject, let alone as the king's brother. Warwick had many other grievances, some self-interested, others on policy and principle, and committed himself to reform.
Many people at the time and historians for three centuries afterwards thought that he was justified. Edward's favourites were destroyed at Edgecote, the king himself was confined, and a parliament was summoned, most probably to create a protectorate for Warwick, perhaps to restore Clarence as heir.
When their regime collapsed, Warwick and Clarence were pardoned in Decemberbut excluded from power. Thwarted, yet not deflected from their objectives, and perhaps fearful that Edward was merely biding his time, Warwick and Clarence fomented the Lincolnshire Rebellion early inthis time with a view to putting Clarence on the throne: After their defeat, Clarence was comprehended in Warwick's negotiations, his ambitions dropped.
Whilst he secured restoration of his lands, or most of them, Clarence was now an anomaly, resented by returning Lancastrians whose advancement he obstructed, and certainly no better off than he was before.
When his mother, sisters, and other close kin pressed him to revert to the Yorkist cause, he was persuaded, transferring with his forces to Edward IV.
He was perjured; yet he sought to persuade Warwick to join him, unsuccessfully The Arrivall. Clarence fought at the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury.
Edward IV was king once more and his son, the future Edward V, was heir. Signature of the duke of Clarence redrawn by Piat Design. When Clarence returned to his allegiance, all was forgiven. His offences were wiped out and he was restored to his estates. King Edward owed him.
Under such circumstances, he could not be deprived of his wife's inheritance by the forfeiture of her father Warwick. He was allowed to take instant possession of everything except the northern estates in tail male, which were granted to Gloucester. Clarence also took custody of his sister-in-law Anne Neville, widow of Edward of Lancaster. Unfortunately the Warwick inheritance dispute sullied the relations of the three royal brothers.
The Warwick Inheritance Warwick the Kingmaker and his wife. Based on Rous Roll. The Countess Anne however survived until However Warwick had died a traitor and his estates should have been forfeited.
Edward IV | Biography, Children, & Facts | hidden-facts.info
Actually Clarence received all to which his duchess was heiress from either parent: He did not intend Anne to inherit or remarry. She however married Gloucester, who laid claim to half the Beauchamp, Despenser and Salisbury lands, probably in addition to the Neville lands.
Edward IV imposed as settlement the division of all four inheritances. All three brothers agreed not to attaint Warwick or his brother Montagu, but to dispossess the Countess Anne and Montagu's son of their entitlements. Crowland found the settlement profoundly shocking.
If this allowed Clarence to secure his duchess' heritage ahead of time, he was nevertheless deprived of much that he had received in even though his brother's marriage to Anne Neville was never valid [For an alternative perspective on this see the following article and here ]. Clarence resisted implementation of this dubious settlement but was obliged to comply: It is not surprising that he resented the way that he had been treated Reconciliation with Edward Only six years passed between Clarence's reconciliation with his brother in and his fall in He was appointed great chamberlain of England, councillor of the new Prince of Wales who had supplanted him as heir, attended the council, parliament, and state ceremonies, and took one of the largest retinues on Edward's invasion of France in Whilst he had lands all over the country, his principal estates were in the North Midlands untilin the West Midlands, and in the West Country: He is revealed by John Rous as lord of Warwick in the Beauchamp tradition.
He fathered four children, two of whom outlived him. Following his duchess' death inhe appears to have believed her poisoned by her attendant Ankarette Twynho, who — in a shocking display of arbitrary power — he abducted from her home in Dorset to Warwick, where he was most powerful. She was put on trial, all stages being completed in one day, and executed. This is the most convincing proof of Clarence's overwhelming power in his home country.
Treason and Death Several factors contributed to Clarence's rupture with his king in Following his duchess' death, he was in the market for a second consort. The opportunity arose with the death of Charles, Duke of Burgundy, whose duchess — his sister Margaret of York—favoured Clarence as consort to her step-daughter Mary, Clarence's step-niece, 'the greatest heiress of her time'.
Clarence would have become an important sovereign prince. Such a match might have been thought in England's national interest, but Edward IV thwarted it. Perhaps he feared what use Clarence would make of such promotion; perhaps he did not want his brother advanced; most probably he wanted to avoid foreign entanglements and expense, a breach with France or the loss of his French pension — a priority that restricted his diplomatic independence and ultimately failed. Clarence reportedly attended council less frequently and contributed little when there.
In private he complained against Edward and Edward railed against Clarence, but their comments were relayed from each to other. Reportedly Clarence feared that the king sought his ruin as a candle consumes in burning.
Sibling rivalries overcame the proper relations of the monarch and his greatest subject. Clarence's trusted retainer Thomas Burdet and two astrologers supposedly cast the king's horoscope, which, under contemporary law, was treasonable.HOWL - Elizabeth Woodville & Edward IV
All were convicted and executed, Burdet declaring his innocence. Clarence had his protestation read out at the royal council. Whilst surely right to stand up for his retainer, it was this act, which cast doubt on royal justice that prompted Edward to imprison him.
Probably it was only later that the Twynho affair came into play. Clarence's arrest did not presume the death penalty, nor did it constitute treason, nor was the duke so far as we know implicated in any other treasons.
Yet he was to be charged, tried and executed for treason in a parliament specially summoned for this purpose in January However, it has also been pointed out that as this narrative stems from Richard's own parliament ofit should probably be treated "with caution".
Buckingham tried to escape in disguise, but was either turned in by a retainer for the bounty Richard had put on his head, or was discovered in hiding with him. His widow, Catherine Woodvillelater married Jasper Tudorthe uncle of Henry Tudor,  who was in the process of organising another rebellion.
Henry fled to Paris, where he secured support from the French regent Anne of Beaujeuwho supplied troops for an invasion in Death at the Battle of Bosworth Field[ edit ] Main articles: Richard rode a white courser. All that can be said is that the Royal army 'substantially' outnumbered Tudor's. However, the role of Northumberland is unclear; his position was with the reserve—behind the king's line—and he could not easily have moved forward without a general royal advance, which did not take place.
Either way, Richard led a cavalry charge deep into the enemy ranks in an attempt to end the battle quickly by striking at Henry Tudor himself. Richard III was the last English king to be killed in battle. There was a memorial ledger stone in the choir of the cathedral, since replaced by the tomb of the king, and a stone plaque on Bow Bridge where tradition had falsely suggested that his remains had been thrown into the river.
On the ride into battle, his spur struck the bridge stone of Bow Bridge in the city; legend states that as his corpse was carried from the battle over the back of a horse, his head struck the same stone and was broken open.
Neither their birth dates nor the names of their mothers are documented, but since Katherine was old enough to be wedded in age of consent was 12 and John was old enough to be knighted in September in York Minster when his half brother Edward, Richard's only legitimate heir, was invested Prince of Wales and to be made Captain of Calais in Marchmost historians agree that they were fathered during Richard's teen years.
Rowse that Gloucester "had no interest in sex". Richard visited Pontefract fromin April and Octoberand in early Marchfor a week. She later received another allowance, apparently for being engaged as nurse for Clarence's son, Edward of Warwick. Richard continued her annuity when he became king.