Hinduism,hindu festivals,customs,traditions and observances in Trinidad and hidden-facts.info Mahabharata
The birth of Dhritarashtra and Pandu filled the kingdom with festive celebrations of The marriage of Pandu, the pale one, to the 'matchless beauty' Kunti Who among us would not be curious to test such a boon - and so one fine day the. Dhritarashtra was the strongest of all princes in the country, Pandu was Dhritarashtra's marriage with Gandhari, and Pandu's with Kunti and Madri. . archer, such as the now-presumed-dead Arjuna, could pass the test. In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Dhritarashtra is the King of Kuru Kingdom with its capital Dhritarashtra, along with his younger half-brother Pandu is trained in the military arts by Bhishma and Kripacharya. Hindered by his handicap.
Battle of Kurukshetra[ edit ] Dhrutarastra Lament Lord Krishna as a peace emissary of Pandavas traveled to Hastinapura persuading Kauravas to avoid bloodshed of their own kin. However, Duryodhana conspired to arrest him that resulted in failure of mission. After Krishna's peace mission failed and the war seemed inevitable, Vyasa approached Dhritarashtra and offered to grant him divine vision, so that Dhritarashtra could see the war. However, not willing to see his kin slaughtered, Dhritarashtra asked that the boon be given to Sanjaya his charioteer.
Sanjaya dutifully narrates the war to his liege, reporting how Bhima killed all his children. Sanjaya would console the blind king while challenging the king with his own viewpoints and morals.
When Lord Krishna displayed his Vishvarupa Universal Form to Arjuna on the battlefield of KurukshetraDhritarashtra regretted not possessing the divine sight. He rejoiced whenever the tide of war turned against Pandavas. However, the results of the war devastated him. All of his trueborn sons were killed in the carnage. Dhritarashtra's only daughter Duhsala was widowed. Yuyutsu had defected to Pandava side at the onset of war and was the only son of Dhritrashtra who had managed to survive Kurukshetra War.
After the war ended, the victorious Pandavas arrived at Hastinapur for the formal transfer of power. The king entrusts his troops to his young son who needs a chariot driver.
Draupadi, who seeks war with the Kauravas at all costs, points out Arjuna as the world's best charioteer, despite the fact that he has disguised himself as a eunuch. Arjuna cannot refuse to fight and is decisively victorious, one man against countless armies. War draws even closer. Duryodhana refuses to give his cousins back their kingdom because he claims they came out of hiding before the appointed time.
He tries to win Krishna's support, as does Arjuna. Krishna offers Arjuna first choice: Arjuna chooses Krishna, allowing Duryodhana to have the armies. When Arjuna asks him to drive his chariot, Krishna accepts. In the Kaurava court, the blind king also senses the imminence of war.
He asks the elderly Bhishma, an unparalleled warrior, to take the supreme command. His duty to the family outweighs his feelings toward the Pandavas, and he reluctantly accepts, but on one condition: Although displeased, Karna bitterly agrees to fight only after Bhishma's death.
Dhritarashtra sends an envoy to Yudhishthira and begs not to fight since he loves righteousness. It would be better to live without his kingdom than risk the lives of so many. However, even he has reservations: Krishna arrives as an emissary in a final attempt to safeguard peace. He speaks to Duryodhana who does not listen to him, but orders his guards to seize him.
Krishna reveals his divine form: He began to grow in size and various gods issued from him. Krishna allows even the blind Dhritarashtra to see his glory.
Finally, he speaks to Karna, going so far as to reveal that he is the brother of those with whom he intends to fight. But Karna feels abandoned by his mother in his very first hours of life; furthermore he senses the end of this world. He will fight alongside the Kauravas, even though he can already foresee their defeat and his own death. Duryodhana will not listen to warnings. He convinces himself that since the gods had not blessed the Pandavas thus far, they would not protect them during the war.
He makes excuses for his nature: The Kauravas have eleven divisions to stand against the seven of the Pandavas. The two armies are described as two oceans, crashing against each other. Kunti tells the narrator Vyasa in play: Blood decorates your poem, and the cries of the dying are your music.
Both sides agree to abide by certain rules of war: All these rules will eventually be broken. He breaks down and refuses to fight. What value is victory if all our friends and loved ones are killed? Our proper duty is surely to forgive them.
Even if they have lost sight of dharma due to greed, we ourselves should not forget dharma in the same way. This passage is the celebrated Bhagavad Gita, the guide to firm and resolute action. Unlike many epic heroes, at this point Arjuna thinks before he acts. Arjuna hesitates before such killing, wanting to retreat from life and responsibility tension between dharma and mokshabut Krishna tells him as a warrior it's his dharma to fight. Don't worry about death, which is only one small step in the great and endless cycle of life.
One neither kills or is killed. The soul merely casts off old bodies and enters new ones, just as a person changes garments. Death is only illusion. How does a warrior perform his duty without doing wrong, polluting himself with the blood of his enemies? The secret is detachment: Act, but don't reflect on the fruits of the act. Forget desire, seek detachment. Desire is responsible for rebirth; if any desire remains when we die, we must return to another life. Likewise, Yudhishthira told Draupadi during the exile that he performs dharma not for reward but because it is what a good person does; after the battle he has a similar crisis when he temporarily refuses to rule, despairing at all the carnage he has caused.
This type of activity produces neither good nor bad reactions. Just as a soldier may kill under the command of his superior officer and not be held responsible for murder, though if he kills on his own accord he is liable for punishment, similarly, a Krishna-conscious person acts under the Lord's direction and not for his own sake.
He is ever satisfied within himself. No miseries can disturb him, nor any kind of material happiness. He is without detachment, fear and anger, and remains always aloof to the dualities of the world. Since no one can truly renounce all action in life this is a pretense of asceticismit is better to work without attachment KD Some scholars think that the Bhagavad Gita was composed to combat a religious challenge from Jainism and Buddhism which arose in the 6th century BC, both teaching salvation through renouncing the world, the former by asceticism, the latter by monastic life Kinsley Krishna explains that the knowledge he imparts is ancient, just as he told it millions of years ago.
It appears that you were born in this world only recently. For the secure establishment of dharma, I come into being age after age. I was born to destroy the destroyers. Resolved now to perform his duty to his lord, Arjuna leads his troops into battle. For more information, see Bhagavad Gita On-Line and Bhagavad Gita home page On a hill overlooking the battlefield, Dhritarashtra hears the words of Krishna through his aid Sanjaya, who has been granted the ability to see and hear everything that happens in the battle, to relate these things to the blind king.
But he takes some comfort in knowing that Krishna cannot accomplish everything he wants, as he failed to arrange a peaceful solution to the conflict. Before the battle, Yudhishthira goes to both his teachers, Bhishma and Drona: We will fight with you. Please grant us your permission and give us your blessing. I am pleased with you for this wonderful feat.
However, he is unable to overcome Bhishma. After nine days of fighting, the Pandavas visit Bhishma by night; they tell him that, unless he is killed in the war, the carnage will carry on until the end of the world. When asked how he can be defeated, he advises them to place Sikhandi in the front line, from where he will be able to fire freely at Bhishma.
Sikhandi is actually a woman, Amba whom Bhishma had refused to marry and who vowed to be his death. Amba practiced asceticism, standing on one toe in the snow for 12 years to learn the secret of Bhishma's death. Thousands of arrows strike Bhishma in waves. There is no space on his body thicker than two fingers that is not pierced. He falls from his chariot, and lies fully supported by the arrows, with no part of his body touching the earth.
Bhishma does not actually die until much later, at his choosing. He remains lying on a bed of arrows until the end of the battle.
The Story that Leads up to the Bhagavad Gita:
Drona takes command Drona positions the armies in a formation known only to him, the iron disc of war, which nobody knows how to break open, apart from Arjuna. If only Arjuna can be diverted away from the central battle, Drona promises victory. Arjuna has a year old son, Abhimanyu, who, by listening to his father while still in his mother's womb, has learned to force an entry into Drona's battle formation. As Arjuna is called to a diversionary battle far away, Yudhishthira entrusts Abhimanyu with the task of opening a breach in the disc.
Abhimanyu succeeds, but when Bhima and Yudhishthira try to follow him into the opening, they are stopped by Jayadratha, a brother-in-law to the Kauravas, and the breach closes behind the young Abhimanyu. In spite of his bravery, he is killed. Earlier during the time of exile, Jayadratha had tried to kidnap Draupadi, thus another reason for the Pandavas to hate him.Birth of Pandu, Dhritarashtra and Vidhur - BR Chopra - Mahabharat Episode # 6
At this point Arjuna returns to the camp. Inflamed with rage and grief at the sight of his son's body, he vows to kill Jayadratha before sunset on the following day. He solemnly swears to throw himself into the sacrificial fire, should he fail.
Even Krishna is alarmed by this terrible oath. On the next day, Jayadratha is heavily guarded, and Arjuna is unable to reach him. Krishna causes a momentary eclipse of the sun, convincing the enemy that, since night has come, Arjuna must have killed himself because he hasn't kept his vow. Rejoicing, they lay down their arms, leaving Jayadratha vulnerable to Arjuna's arrow. Jayadratha's father had pronounced a curse on anyone who killed his son, saying that whoever caused his son's head to fall to the ground would die.
By mantras, Arjuna causes his arrow not only to sever Jayadratha's head, but to carry it miles away to fall into his father's lap. Being in prayer, he doesn't realize what's happened; he stands up and the head falls, thus he dies from his own curse.
The following day, Karna hurls himself into the battle. Kunti tries to persuade him to join the Pandavas, but Karna is inflexible. However, he does promise Kunti that he will only kill Arjuna, for one of them must die. In this way, she will still have five sons after the war. Karna possesses a magic lance, the gift of Indra, which will kill any living being but can be used only once. He keeps it in reserve for Arjuna.
To dispose of this lance, Krishna calls upon Ghatotkatcha, son of Bhima and the rakshasa. During the night, he fights an epic battle against Karna, who can destroy the demon only by resorting to his magic lance.
Ghatotkatcha is killed, but Krishna dances for joy. With his lance now expended, Karna is vulnerable and Arjuna can kill him. Drona continues to challenge the Pandava armies, slaying thousands. But the Pandavas know his weakness: Bhima slays an elephant, also called Ashvatthama, then deceitfully tells Drona of the death of his son.
Suspecting a lie, Drona asks Yudhishthira for the truth: Drona will lay down his arms the day an honest man lies. Drona lays down his arms. Drupada's son Dhrishtadyumna cuts off Drona's head, having sworn to avenge his father's humiliation.
Meanwhile Bhima sees Duhsasana coming towards him. Bhima had sworn to drink the blood of this avowed enemy for what he had done to Draupadi.
Bhima knocks Duhsasana to the ground with his mace and rips open his chest. Bhima, who kills many Rakshasa and has a son by oneoften acts like the man-eating ogres himself—the bloody deaths of Kicaka and Duhsasana, both to avenge Draupadi; Bhima is her most passionate defender. Bhima kills most of the Kauravas, who were demons incarnate.
The Death of Karna Duryodhana asks Karna to avenge his brother Duhsasana, and he finally meets Arjuna in the decisive confrontation.
Arjuna and Karna both have celestial weapons for example, one shoots arrows of fire to be quenched by arrows of water. Karna has an arrow possessed by a Naga serpent spirit who holds a grudge against Arjuna his family had died in the forest consumed by Agni.
When Karna shoots at Arjuna, his charioteer warns him that his aim is too high, but he refuses to listen, and hits Arjuna's coronet only. When the spirit-possessed arrow returns to him and says try again, this time he will not miss, Karna won't admit failure by shooting the same arrow twice, even if he could kill Arjunas. As the fight continues, the earth opens up and seizes Karna's chariot wheel, in fulfillment of a curse. In desperation, Karna tries to invoke his ultimate weapon, but the magic words escape him.
As he struggles to release his chariot, he cries out to Arjuna: Wait until I can extract my wheel. You are a virtuous warrior. Remember the codes of war. Where was your virtue, O Karna, when Draupadi was brought weeping in the Kuru assembly? Where was it when Yudhishthira was robbed of his kingdom? Krishna commands Arjuna to shoot, and Karna dies.
Stubborn but loyal, Karna could have been king, as eldest of the Pandavas, but he remained with the Kauravas. He always fights fair, and keeps his promise to Kunti not to kill any brothers but Arjuna. Their rivalry echoes the mythic conflict between their divine fathers Indra and Surya. The Death of Duryodhana Over the eighteen-day war, Duryodhana has seen his generals and their armies fall to the Pandavas, but to the very end he refuses to surrender. He hides in the waters of a lake, which he has solidified over him by magic.
Ever the gambler, Yudhishthira tells Duryodhana that he can fight any brother he chooses, and if he wins, the kingdom will be his again. It says something of Duryodhana that he fights with Bhima rather than one of the weaker brothers. In a close battle between equals, Bhima wins only by treacherously striking Duryodhana on the legs, forbidden in the rules of war. Gandhari had put a protective spell over Duryodhana's body, but because he wore a loin cloth for modesty before his mother, his thighs were not protected.
Even Indra used deceit to overcome the mighty asuras Virochana and Vritra. This can never lead to success and happiness. He has carried out his promise and requited the debt he owed his enemy. Know that the terrible age of Kali is at hand, marked by fierce acts and the loss of dharma. That end which is always sought by virtuous warriors is mine.
Who is as fortunate as me? With all my brothers I will ascend to heaven, while you Pandavas will remain here, torn by grief and continuing to suffer. Rather than welcoming the news, Duryodhana dies disheartened that the race of the Kurus appears to have no future.
Dhritarashtra - Wikipedia
Thus all those on both sides die in the war, except the five Pandavas. When Yudhishthira learns of the massacre, he mourns: Arjuna counters with his own weapon, which Drona taught both of them; it was only to be used against divine beings, or else it could destroy the world.
Ashvatthama deflects his into the wombs of the remaining Pandava women, making them sterile, but Krishna promises that Arjuna will nonetheless have descendants. As punishment, Ashvatthama is cursed to wander the earth in exile for years.
The Aftermath Books contain events following the war and teachings by Bhishma. After the war, when Krishna exits the chariot, it bursts into flames; only his presence kept the celestial weapons from destroying it earlier. Krishna reveals that the gods allowed this war to relieve Earth of her great burden similar to Troy. Duryodhana was the incarnation of Kali, lord of the 4th age.
Yudhishthira reports the death toll at six million. Appalled at such losses, he has a personal crisis similar to Arjuna before the battle. He doesn't want to rule because it requires the use of force and more violence. He sees that life itself is painful, as men are always searching for more material wealth and power, never satisfied. The man who prizes gold and dirt equally is happiest. The others convince him he must rule and fulfill his duty. Yudhishthira has a vision of the age to come: Bhima asks, why has he come this far only to quit, like a man climbing a honey tree but refusing to taste it, or a man in bed with a woman but refusing to make love?
Draupadi questions his manhood, as only eunuchs seek tranquility and avoid violence. Arjuna says refusing to rule will only cause more disorder and create for him great amount of bad karma to face in next life of lowly birth. We should accept our role depending on where we are in life: But if one fights lawfully, one should check him with dharma One should conquer evil with good.
Death by dharma is better than victory by evil deeds. She curses Krishna, whom she holds responsible for all of the tragedy that has befallen them: Even Krishna will die; he shall be killed by a passing stranger.
Krishna calmly accepts this curse, then tells her that a light has been saved, even if she cannot see it. Yudhishthira agrees to reign. Thirty-six years pass, and Yudhishthira arrives at the entrance to paradise, carrying a dog in his arms.