Two key in elements the context of sport, including coaches and athletes. and training people of a sports team or a group of them or an athlete . Effective coaches significantly affect the performance, behavior and motivational . sports psychology counseling sessions for coaches and athletes to have necessary mental. This study contributes to the literature on coach-athlete relationship within relationship and coaching behavior in training sessions. coaches' behaviours in the form of autonomy-supportive behaviours, provision of structure and involvement have a . The motivational model of the coach–athlete relationship. Mageau and . athletes who fail to see the benefits of weight training . that the music played during sessions represented their. Table 1.
Clearly, other variables interact with the congruence measure in ways as yet undetermined. Of particular interest in this regard is the fact that preferred leader behaviors can vary among athletes. Older and more accomplished athletes prefer coaches who are both autocratic and socially supportive.
Males prefer training and instructional and an autocratic style more than women do, whereas women tend to prefer a more democratic style. Rather, coaches who are flexible and can adapt their coaching behaviors to the situation and to the preferences of individual athletes are likely to be most successful.
Also, quantitative measures of broad classes of behavior, whether coded with the CBAS or reported, do not necessarily reflect important qualities of the behavior e. Moreover, there is evidence that coaches are perceived as responding differentially to more and less successful athletes.
The latter perceived their coaches as more autocratic and as low on the other four behavioral dimensions. Temporal invariance could therefore affect perceived behavior scores on the LSS and cloud relationships of the LSS with other variables across studies. Given the degree of conceptual overlap between the mediational and multidimensional models of coaching behavior, it is interesting to assess relations between the CBAS and the LSS.
Coaching Behavior and Effectiveness in Sport and Exercise Psychology
In accord with predictions made by Chelladuraithe LSS positive feedback scale was highly correlated with the CBAS categories of reinforcement and general encouragement and negatively related to nonreinforcement. However, the same pattern was shown for the LSS social support scale and, in general, all of the positively toned CBAS behaviors correlated well with all of the LSS scales, except autocratic, the only scale that correlated positively with the punitive CBAS categories. High positive correlations among the training, democratic, positive feedback, and social support scales of the LSS add to the discriminant validity issue.
Achievement Goal Theory No theory has had a greater impact on sport psychology over the past two decades than achievement goal theory AGT.
Originally developed to study motivation within the educational domain Nicholls, ; Ames,the relevance of the theory to motivational issues in sport soon became apparent, inspiring a substantial amount of sport psychology research.
Achievement goal theory focuses on the function and the meaning of goal-directed actions, based on how participants define success and how they judge whether or not they have demonstrated competence.
The two central constructs in the theory are individual goal orientations that guide achievement perceptions and behavior, and the motivational climate created within achievement settings. The theory posits two separate conceptions of success represented in mastery task and ego achievement goal orientations. In mastery orientation, success is self-referenced, defined in terms of personal improvement, enjoyment, effort, and learning from mistakes.
In ego orientation, success is other-referenced, achieved through besting others or equaling their level of performance using minimal effort Ames, ; Roberts, According to AGT, how an individual defines success and competence is influenced by interacting dispositional and environmental factors.
The Athlete’s Perception of Coaches’ Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level
Environmental conditions that emphasize and reinforce mastery or ego success criteria comprise the motivational climate. Achievement goal theory posits two types of motivational climates that promote either mastery or ego conceptions of success.
A mastery climate emphasizes enjoyment, giving maximum effort, and personal improvement as indicators of success, stresses the importance of each team member and promotes mutual support and cooperative learning. Mistakes are viewed not as something to be dreaded but as a natural consequence of learning and as providing the feedback needed to improve performance; coaches provide encouragement and corrective instruction when they occur.
In an ego climate, there is a strong emphasis on outcome. Success is defined as winning out over others; differential attention is focused on the best athletes; intrateam rivalry is promoted by comparing athletes favorably or unfavorably with one another; and mistakes are negatively evaluated and often punished Ames, ; Roberts, Achievement goal theory has inspired the development of sport-specific measures designed to assess differences in both achievement goal orientations and in motivational climates created by coaches, parents, and peers.
Both scales have separate mastery task and ego-climate subscales, but the PIMCSQ-2 also measures underlying facets of the task climate i. Most studies use the superordinate task and ego scales.
As in educational settings, a strong body of empirical evidence shows that a mastery climate is linked to a wide array of positive outcomes, including enhanced enjoyment and satisfaction, higher levels of perceived competence and performance, lower performance anxiety, higher levels of self-esteem, and higher levels of intrinsic motivation for sport participation.
A mastery environment fosters the belief that effort, which is controllable, is the key to sport success, whereas athletes in an ego climate place greater emphasis on ability. A mastery climate promotes greater goal persistence and sustained effort, and athletes tend to adopt adaptive achievement strategies such as selecting challenging tasks, giving maximum effort, persisting in the face of setbacks, and taking pride in personal improvement. In contrast, an ego-involving climate promotes social comparison as a basis for success judgments, whereas an ego environment yields discouragement when a positive outcome is not achieved.
In a mastery climate, athletes show more positive and prosocial moral attitudes, whereas an ego climate is associated with greater willingness to cheat or do whatever is necessary to win. Finally, a mastery climate fosters greater team cohesion, attraction among team members, positive evaluations of the coach, and lower rates of sport attrition compared with an ego climate. Notably, behaviors associated with mastery and ego climates are not mutually exclusive; rather, they are a matter of emphasis.
Most coaches engage in a mixture of mastery- and ego-oriented behaviors, particularly during competition, when the orientation is likely to shift the outcome. Highly successful athletes often have an overall mastery orientation but shift into an ego-oriented state during competition, when the focus is on winning. For both boys and girls, winning percentage was related to enjoyment derived from playing the sport and intention to continue participation the following season.
Likewise, for both boys and girls, mastery climate scores were positively and significantly related to enjoyment playing on the team, liking for the coach, and perceived liking by the coach. An ego climate clearly had a more negative impact on girls, with ego climate scores being negatively related to how much girls liked the sport, how much fun they had playing on their teams, and how much they believed the coach liked them.
An ego climate also affected the importance of win-loss record in ways a mastery climate did not. For both boys and girls, significant relations were found between winning percentage and liking for the sport, personal importance of winning, and intention to return the following year. Nonetheless, gender differences also occurred. In an ego climate, liking for and desire to again play for the coach, liking for teammates and enjoyment playing on the team were positively related to winning record for boys, but not for girls.
Enjoyment playing on the team and desire to play for the coach again were positively and significantly related to winning record for boys, but not for girls. It thus appears that winning within an ego climate is more important than it is in a mastery climate, but that winning may affect different attitudes and aspects of the experience for boys than for girls. Motivational climate research has focused attention on the coach-athlete relationship. Building upon this foundation, several new conceptual models have appeared that focus on the quality of the relationship that is to be found particularly within a mastery climate.
Relational coaching Jowett, focuses on four important aspects of the coach-athlete relationship: The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire is used to measure these aspects of the relationship, and research using this measure shows that relationships that are high on these factors produce the most enjoyable and productive coach-athlete climate.
Another derivative conception, again related to the mastery climate but not identical with it, is the caring environment, where individuals are made to feel a sense of belonging and in which participants treat one another with kindness and mutual respect. Nonetheless, the need to assess the actual climate-relevant behaviors of coaches from both methodological and theoretical perspectives has repeatedly been cited N.
A new theoretical advance integrating AGT and self-determination theory, described in the following section, has inspired the development of a new observation system tied to the expanded model.
Coach-athlete relationship and coaching behavior in training sessions.
Self-Determination Theory A recent theoretical advance integrates AGT with another prominent motivational theory that has special relevance to sport-related motivation Duda, SDT proposes that the social environment influences the extent to which these basic needs are satisfied.
SDT holds that internal and external behavioral goals are distributed on a continuum of self-determination. On the self-determined end lies intrinsic motivation, where actions are performed in the service of inherent enjoyment of the activity. The continuum also contains three different variants of extrinsic motivation. From higher to lower self-determination, these are termed a identified regulation in which behavior is related to other goals, such as engaging in the sport to lose weight or improve conditioningb introjected regulation in which behavior functions to avoid a negative emotion or for ego enhancementand c external regulation in which the behavior is performed for external reasons, such as tangible rewards or the avoidance of punishment.
SDT also retains the concept of amotivation, in which behavior loses all reinforcement value and occurs largely out of habit e. In addition, sport participation is an important educational element in the broader educational experience of students Light and Dixon Much of the responsibility is placed on the coach to set the desired tone through policies and practices. To further understand the interpersonal dynamic between the coach and the player, it is important to understand the perceptions of the players with respect to effective coaching behaviours and practices Garland and Barry It is important to understand how players interpret coaching practices and how those practices affect student-athlete performance Shields et al.
Coach-athlete research has often focused on interpersonal dynamics between the coach and the athletes from a leadership approach Salminen and Liukkonen More recently, research has evolved to investigate the effect of coaching behaviours on the coach-athlete relationships and the impact on outcomes, such as satisfaction Poczwardowski et al.
This paper provides a conceptual framework for examining the impact of coach-athlete relationships on coaching outcomes of role behaviour and performance, and the influence of coaching practices on building and maintaining the relationships. We use the concept of commitment as the construct against which to evaluate coach-athlete relationships.
Coach is responsible for improved student learning and the best way to achieve this goal is to create favorable conditions for learning, establishing appropriate and effective relationship between himself and his students and facilitating the learning.
Techniques, methods, speech and actions of coaches significantly affect those they teach [ 4 ]. Athlete is one who regularly participate in sport and activities related to it. Athlete can be professional or Nonprofessional.
Athlete or a trained person will compete in physical exercises involving strength, speed and endurance. Athletes participate in team and individual fields [ 5 ].
Studies have proved that the relationship between coach and athlete is including exchanges and behaviors that show the element of control, dominance and decisiveness in a coach and independence, friendship and accountability on both sides coaches and athletes. Structures of coach - athlete relationship obtain of three elements including commitment, closeness and being complementary [ 46 - 8 ]. Most athletes, coaches and even sports remember the tournaments in which, despite the technical and physical preparation, poor mental preparation has been prevented of athlete or team success.
Many sports psychologists believe that coaches and athletes in recent years have concluded that In order to achieve their goals they need more mental skills than physical skills [ 9 ].
Based on the theory and social context of Bandura [ 10 ], self efficacy in coaching, defines the extent and potential effectiveness of each coach in the learning and performance of their athletes [ 11 ] and includes four factors: Albert Bandura showed that self efficacy is a special case of self-confidence which means the power of individual believes that they can do the tasks they have been given, successfully.
It should be noted that Individual performance in competitions can not be guessed and casual but there is a direct relationship between his performance and his self efficacy that its measurement is very effective in assessing his performance. Even by that his performance can be predicted before the competition. All of closeness and intimacy, commitment and complementary are important in establishing and maintaining successful and effective interactions [ 12 ].
Efficacy beliefs Provides prominent personal factors that have important applications in quality of athlete -coach Relationship. Efficacy beliefs may play important role in shaping the quality of relationship processes, as defined by the 3Cs of closeness, commitment, and complementary [ 13 ].
Close relationship between coach and athlete by creating a friendly and safe environment can avert their minds of worries and mental discomfort that may be created by the coach and focus on the exercise and lead to strong and successful performance of Individual or team. It should be noted that the performance of athletes in a competition dose not refer to himself, infact athlete converse demands and wishes of a group to success or failure.
So the strengths and weaknesses of group is effective in the way an athlete perform his tasks. Of these factors which are associated with an athlete or sports team such as team manager, coach and technical staff by their actions and behaviors can provide positive or negative result for the athlete or team. Of course the role of environmental factors also should be ignored.
It is the art of the coach that by his insight thoughts and positive interaction with athletes receives benefit from these factors in favor of his athletes and reaches to the proper performance and finally be wining.
In this context we will investigate the effect of self efficacy on the coach — athlete relationship that can be considered as a predictive factor can be considered as a factor in sporting successes.
Materials and Methods Statistical population of this survey are male coaches and athletes of sports leagues in team fields football - basketball and individual wrestling - Taekwondo including coach of selected teams and athletes students of related coaches.
Due to the size of population and random selection table of Morgan 92 coach and athletes was chosen as sample from purpose statistical population.
The Athlete’s Perception of Coaches’ Behavior Towards Competitors with a Different Sports Level
Coaches and athletes statistical sample of sports leagues Measurement Instruments 1. This item measure taps into perceptions of closeness, commitment, and complementary in the coach—athlete relationship e. To examine the reliability of the questions, the Cronbach's alpha and To check the validity of the test questions and to test meaningful relationships between the questions and variables and estimating obtained measurement models confirmatory factor analysis was used and finally in order to investigate the effect among research variables structural equation model SEM and specifically path analysis by Lisrel software was used.
The output of software also shows the suitability of fitted structural model to test the hypotheses. Model in the estimated coefficients standard Figure 2: