Symbiotic Relationship between Catalpa Worm and Braconid Wasp by Lucas Zuehl on Prezi
Hornworm, the wasp, and the fishbait tree The catalpa tree (also called catawba tree)is distinguished by its large It's a relationship suggestive of the narrow diet of the koala bear that eats only the In any case, these caterpillars are the larval stage of Ceratomia catalpae, aka the catalpa sphinx moth. Catalpa worms I knew as summertime bait for panfish. That chemical relationship the caterpillars have turned to their further Thanks for your help. . Some caterpillars do have the larva of the parasitic wasps on them so. The Catalpa Worm is affected negatively because the Braconid Wasp lays it's eggs in the Catalpa Worm and when the eggs hatch they feed on.
Symbiotic Relationship Among Nature 1. A relationship can be found among canines and tapeworms. Type of Symbiotic Relationship: Another relationship can be observed between Cattle Egrets and the livestock. The Cattle Egrets are mostly found in meadows and grasslands are always seen near cattle, horses and other livestock. These birds feed on the insects that come out of the field due to the movement of the animals.
In Africa, the Nile Crocodile, and a tiny blackbird called the Plover have a unique relationship. The Plover acts as a toothpick for the fierce crocodile and helps by removing tiny morsels of food that are stuck between the crocodile's teeth. These food particles are the source of food for the bird.
Catalpa Worms and Parasitic Wasps
Barnacles are crustaceans whose adults are sedentary. The motile larvae find a suitable surface and then undergo a metamorphosis to the sedentary form. The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available. In the case of lodging on the living organism, the barnacle is transported to new sources of food. The presence of barnacle populations does not appear to hamper or enhance the survival of the animals carrying them. In Africa, a lion must find food supply.
Therefore the female lion stalks and kills animals such as wildebeest and antelope in order to provide food to the lion pride. In return for the room and board the ants chase off herbivores, kill and eat herbivorous insects, and destroy and plants that try to compete with the acacia. The horsehair worm starts life as an egg laid in a puddle. The puddle dries out and a grasshopper or similar insect comes along and eats the egg, which promptly hatches and burrows through the gut of the insect into its body cavity or hemolymph.
Here, surrounded by the nutritious blood of the insect it grows until it reaches adulthood.
At that point it starts producing chemicals which take over the brain of the insect and cause the insect to seek out water, which it jumps into. The worm then exits the hopper and lives in the puddle, mating and laying more eggs.
The grasshopper, if it doesn't drown, may survive the ordeal. Below, a social parasite. This cricket lives in an ant nest. It disguises itself with a chemical signature that fools the ants into thinking it is just another ant. It is free to roam the nest and it even gets the ants to feed it. The Brown-Headed Cowbirds above are nest parasites. They originally followed the bison on the Great Plains, feeding on insects kicked up by the large herds. Since the bison themselves migrated, following the melting snows and eating the fresh spring grass, the cowbirds had to move as well.
This presented a problem, as it's hard to incubate eggs on the move. Lay the eggs in other birds' nests, and trick the other birds into raising your young. The cowbirds hatch out first, push the other eggs out of the nest, and the nest-builders often much smaller than the rapidly growing cowbird end up feeding it instead of their own young.
Even though the other birds may pattern their eggs the cowbirds are up to the challenge. Cowbirds hesitate entering forests, but roads, farms, powerlines and other human intrusions give them a pathway deep into the woods where they are free to parasitize the nests of birds which until the arrival of humans didn't have to worry about the cowbirds.
Some of these bird species are on the verge of extinction as a result. Bromeliads left, above left avoid the hassle of crating a trunk to lift their leaves above the forest floor and closer to the sun. They simply grow on the branches of trees. Since the bromeliads don't take any nutrients from the trees this is usually classified as a commensalism, but if there are a lot of bromeliads left the tree will need to add extra wood to support the weight a bromeliad can trap up to 10 gallons 80 pounds of water in its leaves.
So, if there are a lot of bromeliads the relationship overall turns into a negative for the tree. The bromeliads also host a number of organisms in the water they trap; the wastes from the animals living there undoubtedly fertilizes the bromeliad in a mutualistic relationship. The tree at lower left is absolutely covered with epiphytes. Leeches below left are usually thought of as ectoparasites although some are predators. They attach to a vertebrate host and take a blood meal before dropping off.
Most aren't adapted to a single vertebrate host, but they are highly adapted to sucking blood; their saliva includes anesthetics to help keep the host from noticing the bite, as well as anticoagulants to keep the blood flowing.
Below is a larval mussel freshwater clam. If there is any case of "good" parasitism, this may be it. The little mussels go into the mouth and pass over the gills. Here, they clamp down by closing the shell and digging in with the little teeth pictured at the edge of the shell. The fish provides a meal and transport upstream moving is not something mussels do well over long distances, particularly upstream.
Lichens above and left are mutualistic associations between a fungus and an algae or cyanobacteria. They are the terrestrial equivalents in some ways of corals.
The fungus provides a tough, waterproof body able to withstand extreme environments on rocks and tree trunks. It is good at obtaining water and secretes acids to dissolve minerals from the rocks. It also produces carbon dioxide. All of these materials are then funneled to the endosymbiotic algae or cyanobacteria, which use the materials in photosynthesis and produce sugars which are then shared with the fungus.
Some studies have shown that the fungus benefits from this relationship more so than the algae; at least under good conditions algae grown without the fungus grow faster then they do with the fungus. This wasp has stung and paralyzed a stink bug and is dragging it to its underground lair. Here it will deposit an egg and the larvae that hatches from the egg will eventually consume the bug. Keeping the bug alive but paralyzed ensures it doesn't rot.
The two lice to the right parasitize humans. The body louse above can attach to hairs of the body or head and then suck blood from the host. While it is relatively easy to remove the adults particularly if your hair is thinthe eggs are another story. The eggs are called nits and are glued to the hairs, the careful search for these tiny eggs has given us the term "nitpicking". The larger claws of the crab louse allow it to grasp the thicker pubic hairs.
Overall, lice aren't the biggest health concenr humans face; on their own they do relatively little damage. The diseases they can transmit, however, can cause devastating epidemics and many deaths. Fleas below are adapted to live in mammals with thicker hair. The comb-like structures help them hang on.
The mosquito above is a very temporary exoparasite; it probably shouldn't be counted as a symbiont so much as a predator. Not all situations are readily apparent. The mites on the bumblebee at left are in fact sucking fluids from it; mites have been implicated in the decline of our commercial honeybees.
This is a clear case of ectoparasitism. On the other hand, the mites in the image above left are merely hitching a ride on the Carrion Beetle.
biosystems: Painful Symbiosis
This beetle locates dead animals and flies to the carcasses to lay its eggs, which hatch and feed on maggots on the carcass. The mites are interesting. Often, they feed on fly eggs and small maggots; this reduces competition for the carrion by the flies, and thus actually helps the beetles out a bit. The mites do NOT suck fluids from the beetle; they merely hitch a ride and thus make a trip they would not be able to make on their own.
This hitchhiking is called phoresy, and as long as the phoretic animals are much smaller than their hosts - and there aren't too many of them - this would qualify as a commensal relationship.
If the mites help to reduce the maggot population and thus reduce competition for the beetle, they may actually be benefiting the beetle and thus move this relationship into mutualism. Right - A leafcutter ant tending fungus in its underground nest. The fungus is almost completely dependent on the ants. The ants bring in nutrients bits of plant leavesprune the fungus back, transfer it to new bits of leaves and even to new ant nestsremove competing fungi, bring in only leaf bits from trees without chemicals which would hurt the fungus, etc.
Perhaps most amazing is the fact that the ants enlist a second symbiont - bacteria of the genus Streptomyces that the ants grow in specially modified areas of their own exoskeletons. The Streptomyces is then used to produce antibiotics that inhibit the growth of fungi which would compete with the fungi the ants are growing.
There is a lot more to this mutualistic interaction; try this page built with pictures from our Costa Rica trips: We call these organisms Keystone species 1. Keystone predators may control key competitors at lower levels in the food chain, thus allowing other species to thrive.
Keystone mutualists may provide needed resources for a wide host of organisms example: Keystone competitors, if removed, allow one competitor to dominate, reducing diversity The Gopher Tortoise above and right is a classic example of a keystone mutualist. It excavates large burrows which may extend 10 meters or more, and which are almost 1 foot in diameter with some larger chambers as well, so the turtle can turn around. A number of other species including burrowing owls, gopher frogs, indigo snakes, and a number of invertebrates are highly dependent on these burrows; they often live in the burrow alongside the tortoise benefits to the tortoise of this arrangement are not clear.
Studies of the Purple Sea Star Pisaster ochraceus have shown it to be a keystone predator - it preys preferentially on species - such as certain mussels - which would otherwise outcompete all the other species trying to gain a foothold on the rocks. By reducing the number of mussels, the sea stars open up habitat for other species and thus increase the overall diversity of the ecosystem note that the sea stars are a predator to the mussels, not a mutualist!
The Red Mangrove, below, has long stilted roots that arch down to the water at the edge of tropical shores.
Symbiotic Relationship Secnarios - Welcome to Biology!
These roots stabilize the soil, protect coastal areas from erosion, and provide hiding places for many animals, including the young of many coral reef fish. In this way the Red Mangrove is a keystone mutualist like the Gopher Tortoise. The American Alligator, left, excavates depressions in its habitat that fill with water. During dry times, these gator holes may be the only places with water. Thus, to all the organisms whose survival depends on the water in those holes the alligator is a keystone mutualist.
Of course, the gator might eat a few of those things that come to live in its wallow. Beaver are well-known for building dams.