Germany and Brazil, a relationship between spaces
Brazil and Germany: A 21st-Century Relationship – Opportunities in Trade, Investment and Finance. On the surface, it would seem that Brazil. Science, technology, and innovation are important components in the relations between Brazil and Germany. Through cooperation with Germany, Brazil aims at . Brazil's German population is most concentrated in the South region of . Nazi Germany attacked Brazilian ships, and Brazil broke relations.
Yet, underneath the surface of power, lay dimensions of contact and of interactions, for example, amongst commercial houses, in expert cultures, and in the everyday life of migrants, which have gave solidity to the relationship between the two distant countries. The First World War From a Brazilian point of view, the outbreak of the war in Europe marked a deep cut in historical development.
From the very beginning, contemporary observers sensed that this war would be different, that it would have a dimension that went far beyond the usual. This would be a world conflict which nobody could evade. Many agreed that in these August days of an era in history had ended and a new and uncertain one had begun. Although Brazil remained neutral untilconnections to Germany were cut almost immediately by the naval blockade of the Allies.
Thus, the naval war not only destroyed German-Brazilian trade, but also endangered German and German-Brazilian investments. Destroying cables and hunting traders and commercial houses via blacklists, the English made sure to uproot German influences in that country and to make sure of the booty.
Not England, but rather the United States were the main profiteers of this rupture.
In addition to the loss of commerce, German ships were interned in the neutral Brazilian ports. Nevertheless, many German businesses managed to survive. Some, like the Wille Company, simply substituted trade with the United States for commerce with Germany. Others reinvested profits into industrial ventures in South Brazil. This came at an opportune moment because foreign competition was erased due to wartime conditions Wyneken,p. The Brazilian government actively participated in a peace initiative together with Argentina and Chile concerning the conflict between the United States and Mexico.
Although this did not lead to tangible results, Germans were pleased to note that Latin-American countries seemed to create a tangible front against US influences, thus potentially binding Washington in the Western Hemisphere. This end was, indeed, one of the major goals of German policy during the war years Gilderhus,p. The second major aim was to keep Brazil neutral. In order to achieve this, the German government created its propaganda central there.
From Brazil, German diplomats tried to influence a number of newspapers, which in their majority favored the cause of the Western Allies and not the Germans. Again, the cooperation of German-Brazilians proved important in this endeavour.
However, success was less likely when German submarines began to sink Brazilian ships. The first incident occurred in April with the steamship Rio Branco, which had been chartered by the British. Yet, when the submarine warfare was reduced, so were tensions, at least for a while. This was important because the German interests tried to use Brazil as a base for wireless station to rebuilt direct communication with that country and with Latin America at large.
When, inthe United States entered the war, the situation changed dramatically. Unrestricted German submarine warfare soon led to the sinking of another Brazilian ship in April Shortly thereafter mob violence against German institutions and enterprises shook many Brazilian cities especially in the South.
When further Brazilian ships were attacked, the government in Rio de Janeiro finally reacted by declaring war against Germany in October German language publications were forbidden, enterprises shut and anti-German feelings remained rampant. The use of the German language in education was prohibited, too, and hence many schools had to be closed because the teachers could not speak Portuguese Luebke,p. Brazilian troops did not enter the battlefields.
Was this the total rupture that many historians have written about in their studies? No, because German-Brazilians continued to act in the spaces between the now solid national states which fought a war against each other. In these spaces, they dynamically moved between national adherences trying to survive. And they were impressively successful thanks to the very fact that they were able to build on solid relationships with influential Brazilians. Despite the harassments and official enmity, these relationships continued to exist and to withstand the challenge of the first European war that Latin-American nations were eventually drawn into.
Indeed, due given the bleak outlook in the very existence of the German-Brazilians gave rise to high hopes of post-war continuities in German planning. Before the complete breakdown of the German empire in autumn of that year, the foreign ministry continued to plan a return to the Brazilian markets.
One of the main goals it set itself was to create a new and more productive press service in order to influence public opinion.
Federal Republic of Germany
In addition, means of how to push back the US commercial interests were discussed. What Germany wanted in Brazil — and in Latin America at large for that matter — was the open door and its fair share.
Especially the raw materials and food from Brazil seemed to be essential, given the state of emergency in Germany in the last year of the war. An expansion into the Brazilian markets seemed to be essential to safeguard the results of the still expected wartime triumph.
Belonging to the coalition of enemies, Brazil was a difficult place to re-establish relations. Although the government had not confiscated German property on a big scale, it had annulled the concessions of the large Santa Catarina Railway Company and the German South American Telegraph Company. In addition, it had sequestered the German ships. The railway fell to the state of Santa Catarina and the cable concession had to be handed over to the Allies.
Moreover, the Brazilian government now claimed the debts of German pre-war creditors. Brazilian bonds in Germany were sold in order to pay reparations Cornelius,p. Nevertheless, these measures did not threaten the survival of German economic interests on the whole — thus there existed some optimism in the transition period of Trott-Helge, The Brazilian Bank for Germany, which had stood under government control afterwas allowed to continue its work although its business did not go well.
Init was transformed into a Brazilian enterprise and, init was taken over by the German Overseas Bank. Much more successful was the return of the most modern German enterprises, like Siemens and AEG, which invested, for example, great sums in Santa Catarina. In addition, German-Brazilian commercial houses participated actively in the first boom of industrialization, which had developed since due to the wartime demand. In general, the post-war return of German economic interest groups to Brazil was incomplete as compared to the pre-war period.
There were substantial changes in its consistency because the big industrial concerns of the chemical, electronic and heavy metal sectors now dominated the scene while many of the traditional commercial house merged into the Brazilian environment. Indeed, the nationalist pressure led to the transformation of many enterprises into Brazilian firms thus making the category of the nation even more dubious Rinke, ap.
Within Latin America, Brazil was the second most important economic partner for Germany. This held true for trade, too. When the economic situation in Germany had stabilized incoffee continued to be the most important product on the German market.
Inaccording to the Brazilian statistics, Germany was the third most important trading partner of the country. The return of German shipping lines were a basic condition for this quite successful resurgence. Indeed, Brazil was one of the first overseas countries to receive ships from Germany after the war. The positive development ended abruptly in that year due to the Great Depression. Even more than before the war, economic relations were influenced by political factors.
The new German government had to deal with the fact that Brazil was part of the victorious coalition which dictated the Versailles Treaty. Yet, during the negotiations, it became clear that the Brazilian representatives were not considered as equals by their Allies. Much to their frustration, Brazilian claims were not satisfied. After signing the treaty, Germany was able to re-establish relations with Brazil in However, the situation remained tense because the Brazilian government insisted on reparations payments, and threatened to confiscate German property — a measure it was entitled to, being a member of the victorious Allies.
However, due to the emergency situation in Germany in the early s and its inability to pay, the open question continued to overshadow the official relationship to such a degree that Germany did not send a mission to the Brazilian centenary. The tensions were obvious — from a Brazilian perspective — in the crucial question of coffee exports. Due to the German emergency, a tax raise on coffee was discussed in Germany in the early s. This caused massive attacks in the Brazilian press.
The German government offered to suspend the tax raise during the negotiations for a commercial treaty between the two countries — which was not existent. Nevertheless, due to the international problems occupation of the Ruhr etc.
Since its founding, Brazil held a non-permanent seat in the important security council of the League. Here it followed a strongly pro-French and, thus anti-German course. Only when in Afranio de Melo Franco became new Brazilian representative in Geneva did the antagonism alleviate Hilton,p.
However, when Germany finally was to join the League, inand received a permanent seat in the Security Council, tensions broke out again. Since the founding of the League, Brazil had claimed a permanent seat itself. It legitimated its claim with leadership in Latin America. The course of Brazilian foreign policy, so its makers maintained, was now to turn away from Europe and to search for cooperation with the United States instead Fischer,p.
In the following seven years, Brazilian-German diplomatic relations stabilized, without the same quality of friendship that was discernible in German relations to Argentina, Chile, or Mexico.
The reparation issue continued to weigh severely on bilateral diplomacy. The role of the Germans was heavily criticized in Brazil — the catchword of the German danger resurfaced. When in the rebels formed the well-known Coluna Prestes Prestes Columnand moved in the Brazilian backcountry untilagain numerous Germans formed part of the movement. Once more, the activities of Germans or German-Brazilians threw a shadow on relations between the two countries Rinke, ap.
When the Great Depression hit both countries, German-Brazilian relations entered a new phase. In the meantime, however, the still open question of a commercial treaty was resolved in When money became scarce and all countries worldwide resorted to protectionism, Germany and Brazil were amongst the first to turn to a barter agreement. Inthe Banco do Brasil traded Brazilian coffee in exchange of German coal. This new form of commerce was to dominate bilateral trade relations in the decade of the s Rinke, ap.
Compared to Brazilian relations to the United States, or German relations to its European neighbors, the bilateral relationship between the two countries was relatively unimportant. Although in the minds of most observers the old dichotomic spatial orders of centers and peripheries still held true, in reality, new forces were creating spaces in between, which were felt on the national level too.
The main actors were, of course, the so-called Auslandsdeutsche. Their number literally exploded after the end of the First World War.
Indeed, more than 55 thousand Germans emigrated to Brazil in the decade of the s. Afteremigration to South America was welcome in Germany. To stimulate emigration seemed to be necessary, given the hunger and dire emergency in the Reich. Although Brazil had also been a wartime enemy, preconditions for German settlements were still good.
In addition, the Brazilian government actively supported German immigrants, since Die deutsch-brasilianischen The new coming Germans continued to settle mainly in South Brazil. But not all of them did find work. Many failed completely and were happy if they were able to return. We still know only little about their fates. Those who did come and stayed were not always causing happiness in German official circles. These migrants soon created their own spheres and spaces, leaving their German fatherland behind, and returning to it mentally, often only in times of need.
I was shocked when I saw in a video posted by the CNI of Bolsonaro lapping up the applause of the audience [for his rhetoric] against admission quotas for the disadvantaged and Afro-Brazilians, political correctness and his definitions of gender identity. Two weeks later, the president of the CNI, Robson Braga de Andrade, declared that Brazilian businesses had few concerns about the potential of a Bolsonaro government.
How do you feel about that? It seems that entrepreneurs are only concerned about business and profits and no interest in democratic values and respect for minorities.
- Brazil and Germany: A 21st-Century Relationship
- Brazil and Germany: A 21st-Century Relationship. Opportunities in Trade, Investment and Finance
- Brazil–Germany relations
One should not treat democracy and dictatorship lightly; one cannot pretend that one has seen nothing and allow such events to happen. Otherwise, we will find ourselves suddenly in a pre-fascist era.
All this reminds me of VW's dealings in Brazil in the s, when companies did not care about the military dictatorship. I don't remember us crying with tears over the loss and flushing away of democracy. German companies are essential for the Brazilian economy, especially in the industrial sector.
The CNI unites the industry associations of all Brazilian states, and German companies influence these organizations. We demand that they speak out against the threat of a new authoritarianism: But the primary goal of companies is profit. Why should they be obliged to comment on elections? During the military dictatorship, economic success was based on inflation and stagnation of salaries, which fell on the workers. The large German companies also made profits from this.
I don't think any shareholder nowadays wants to knowingly make profits by exploiting others. In addition, companies now have moral and ethical obligations. DW has asked the nine largest German public companies operating in Brazil whether they agree with the statements of the president of the CNI and whether they could comment on Bolsonaro's candidacy.
No one said anything about that.
Interestingly, the German elites living in Brazil did not want to get caught in political conflict and had established themselves and wealthy and influential and did not want to engage in conflict with Brazilian natives as this could threaten their position.
There was propaganda spread among German settlements in Brazil that shifted the opinion of Germans in Brazil. It all broke out when Germany torpedoed a Brazilian submarine in and Brazil ended diplomatic relations with Germany. Riots broke out against Germans and there was actually homes burnt in German settlements in Brazil. There was a lot of anti-German sentiment so some German businesses operating in Brazil with German names had to change their names in order to continue receiving business.
Finally, inafter Brazil broke off diplomatic relations with Germany, Brazil began restricting some institutions in Brazil. InBrazil, almost unanimously declared war on Germany after the submarine and ship seizing incident.
This new law had an affect on German in a number of ways.
The first was that German based schools were shut down. Second homes of German architecture were destroyed. Lastly German language use was prohibited. This policy was enforced do discourage any display of the German culture in Brazil.Germany vs Brazil Full Match 2018 - Partido Completo
These polices caused low numbers of German immigrants. InNazi Germany attacked Brazilian ships, and Brazil broke relations with the Axis at the Rio conference, and entered the war officially in August the same year. Brazil sent its navy to sink German U-Boats. During this time Brazil was seen by many as pro-Nazi.
Brazil also sent an Expeditionary Force over to fight in Europe. This force enlisted many German-Brazilians to fight along with Allied forces. This was tragic because many of the German-Brazilians in the force were forced to fight against Germany and the people of the land that they came from.
Blumenau, for a long time dedicated 63 percent of its total revenues to roads and bridges. ByGerman colonies in the South had the finest natural surface roads in Brazil. Even where Germans were few or their colonies nonexistent, they pioneered road construction.
The creation of a Brazilian airline came in by Otto Ernet Meyer. Otto Meyer made a deal with Condor Syndikat, a German airline: The flight lasted a little over two hours, which was faster than taking the train, and the ticket price was comparable to that of a train. The company also acquired two Klemm L aircraft, that were used to transport mailbag and also advertisement of commercial aviation in the inner cities of Rio Grande do Sul State.
InVarig officially split into two companies. Conclusion Through the years, Germans have left a major impact on the ecconomy of Southern Brazil in which they settled. They brought advances in agriculture, religions, foods and beverages, industrial manufacturing, and architecture.