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If you haven't read the books, you may be in need of a little bit more Charlie and Astrid had a big fight in which she threw a Wendy's Frosty at him, cut and dry in the movie, on the page there's more to it than meets the eye. Here, we'll get into the meat of engine assembly, the bottom end: measuring main tighten the spin wheel until the mic contact points meet the crank journal. You'll note there is a small amount of bearing insert extending past the main cap as Using a large (clean) screwdriver or pry bar, move the crankshaft backward. It has two ends - Small End and Big End. The small end is connecte Every component design in an engine has to meet 2 main design objectives. Strength.
There are two different times you can measure rod journal dimensions: Finally, when using a micrometer, keep in mind that heat has an effect on readings. Additionally, when storing the micrometer, be sure the measuring contact points are left open so that temperature variations do not stress the instrument.
Next up, each main bearing has to be installed, and the assembled diameter has to be checked. The bearings should be cleaned and dry. We start at the front and work our way backward, beginning with main bearing number one bearing caps are usually numbered and marked with an arrow facing forward. The idea here is to install the bearing, torque the bearing cap and measure the inside diameter of the bearing bore with the bearing installed.
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Most engines also have an oil hole in the block that coincides with the upper bearing insert. This oil hole links the main bearing to the main bearing supply machined within the cylinder block.
Only one-half of the bearing set inserts per main journal cap will be equipped with an oil hole. Begin the installation with the tang side of the bearing insert. Install in the block and then push the opposite edge into the main bearing bore. Repeat the process in the accompanying main bearing cap.
Be sure the bearing is fully seated. This ensures the bearing does not spin or turn during engine operation. At this time, you only need to install bearings on the number one main. Additionally, many main caps have an arrow that points forward: It goes toward the front of the engine.
This arrangement places all of the bearing tangs on one side. Oil the threads for the main cap bolts. We generally use good old-fashioned SAE 30 conventional non-synthetic for this purpose.
Install the front cap with bearing inserts in place. Thread the bolts in by hand and then using a soft face hammer dead blow plastic or brassseat the cap against the block. Torque the cap bolts to the factory-recommended specification. Generally, we use three equal steps for example, 25, 50 and 75 foot-poundsalternating between the bolts in each of the steps.
On four bolt main caps, we start on the inner caps first then work outward. This tends to tighten the bearing cap evenly. Check the clearances Using an inside micrometer or dial bore gauge, measure the bearing inside diameter. Much like the crankshaft, we tend to measure the bearings within the bore in several different locations. Subtract the crankshaft outside diameter measured previously for journal number one from the bearing bore diameter.
That resulting figure is the bearing clearance. Check the figure against manufacturer specifications. Repeat the entire process for all of the main bearings and caps. Once complete, remove all of the caps. Keep each cap and bearing intact.
Leave the lower bearings in the cylinder block. Installing the crankshaft Depending upon the engine you have, it can be equipped with either a one-piece or two-piece rear main seal.
No matter what format, it must be installed next. In either case, install the seal so that the lip faces inward toward the engine.
Clean the seal groove with a shot of brake cleaner and a fresh shop towel. The groove must be clean and oil free for the sealant to work properly. Apply a small amount of RTV silicone sealer on the seal groove in both the cylinder block and the main cap.
Wipe up any excess a wet finger works perfectly. Install the bottom half of the seal, or in the case of a one-piece seal, gently tap into place over the crankshaft you can use a seal driver, but most seals easily tap on. Apply motor oil the same SAE 30 oil works to the main bearings. Alternatively, you can use engine assembly lube shown in the photo. It sticks with more tenacity than oil, providing more protection during the initial startup.
Apply a small amount of engine oil or assembly lube to the main seal lip. Lower the crankshaft into place. Reinstall the number one cap and the thrust bearing cap only.
Seat the caps using a soft face hammer. Checking thrust clearance Using a soft face hammer plastic dead blow or brasstap the crank nose moving the crankshaft rearward. Install a dial indicator to read on the crank flange or nose of the engine. Using a large clean screwdriver or pry bar, move the crankshaft backward. Zero the gauge on the dial indicator.
Pry the crankshaft forward and check the reading. Next, torque the caps to specs and repeat the process. Shift the cap and recheck.
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Compare your final thrust clearance figure to the manufacturer specifications. Finally, install the balance of the caps and bearings and torque to specifications.
Checking the rod clearances Beginning at the front of the engine, use your micrometer to check the overall diameter of each of the connecting rod journals on the crankshaft. The process is exactly the same as we used to check the main bearing clearances. Check each journal in multiple locations and record those figures.
You can now check the rod bearing clearances. Use the same process we used for the main bearing caps: Install the bearings with the tabs aligned. You can match the numbers on the rods or check to ensure the chamfers are all on the same side and install the caps.
The bearings and caps are aligned tang to tang not offset. Using engine oil as the lubricant, torque the cap bolts to the recommended figure and measure the bearing ID with a bore gauge. Big-End Bore The lower end of a connecting rod the end that houses the rod bearings and attaches to the crankshaft is commonly referred to as the big end, while the upper wrist pin end is commonly called the small end. Using a bore gauge, measure the big-end bore diameter with the cap installed and fully torqued to specification at several points in terms of clock position and compare your findings to specifications.
This will clamp the rod securely, leaving the mating faces exposed. Never use a bench vise unless soft-metal jaw liners are installed. Also measure the big-end bore for out-of-roundness.
The bare rod big-end bore should be perfectly round. Maximum allowable out-of-roundness is generally considered to be about. If out-of-round, depending on rod design, the rod big end may be resized by removing a small amount of material from the cap and rod mating faces using a cap grinder always remove as little as possible—just enough to be able to rehone to a round condition.
Of course, this holds true only for connecting rods that were manufactured with a machined surface between the rod and cap. This is usually limited to correcting for. Small-End Bore Depending on rod design, you may be dealing with either press-fit or full-floating pins.
Most production setups feature a press-fit, where the wrist pin is allowed to pivot in the piston pin bore but the wrist pin is interference-fit to the small end of the rod. In a press-fit, the wrist pin is secured by the press-fit to the rod. In either case, proper pin clearance is critical. But generally, a press-fit pin requires a. For a full-floating setup, wrist pin-to- bushed -rod small-end bore will likely be in the. As with big-end bore. If out-of-round, resize the small end hone round, install a bronze bushing and hone to size.
If the rod features a floating pin design, also inspect the condition of the bronze bushing. If signs of galling or other damage are present, replace the bushings. Also, make sure that the oil hole that provides splash oiling to the pin in the rod and bushing is open and unrestricted. This negates the possibility of the small-end and big-end bores from being out-of-parallel.
Bend and Twist Always inspect any connecting rod for bend and twist. A bend in the rod beam results in the centerline of the big-end bore being out of alignment with the center of the wrist pin bore. A twist in the beam throws the big-end bore out-of-plane with the small end. If you cannot insert a feeler gauge between the checker-to-wrist pin contact on either side, the rod is straight.
If you can insert a feeler gauge, the thickness of the gauge indicates the amount of bend. OE specs for bend tolerance vary, but generally, maximum allowable bend should be limited to.
This can lead to premature rod bearing failure as well as unwanted or uneven forces being applied at the wrist pin area. Again, a feeler gauge will indicate any amount of twist that exists. Common straight-up-rebuild recommendations often allow for as much as. If a powdered-metal rod is bent or twisted, just pitch it and replace it with a new rod. A visual inspection might reveal problems such as heat discoloration. If the rod features a press-fit wrist pin, the discoloration is likely the result of heating the small end to expand the small-end bore for installation of the wrist pin, which is normal.
However, if the rod features a full-floating pin design, any heat discoloration indicates a lack of lubrication, in which case the bluing is a concern.
A skilled engine machinist will be able to analyze these results. Visually inspect the rod beam along its length and where the beam transitions into the small end and big end, looking for nicks or gouges. A nick or cut in the beam is a potential stress riser where a crack can begin under operating stress.