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Adversaries in World War II, fierce economic competitors in the s The animosity of the s and s, when U.S.-Japan relations were .. Both Americans and Japanese overwhelmingly trust Australia, a brand of children's video games, movies and television programs and toys from Nintendo. For more than 70 years, Australia and the United States have been inseparable allies. The US-Australia investment relationship is not a one-way street. .. to develop film in Australia through a joint venture with a Melbourne company. by World War II, proved to be a major turning point in the US-Australia.
Full-scale mobilization had ended the Depression domestically, and victory had opened vast, unchallenged markets in the war-torn economies of western Europe and Japan. Furthermore, from throughHollywood had experienced the most stable and lucrative three years in its history, and inwhen two-thirds of the American population went to the movies at least once a week, the studios earned record-breaking profits.
The euphoria ended quickly, however, as inflation and labour unrest boosted domestic production costs and as important foreign markets, including Britain and Italy, were temporarily lost to protectionist quotas. Although the studios continued to produce traditional genre films, such as westerns and musicals, their financial difficulties encouraged them to make realistic small-scale dramas rather than fantastic lavish epics. Instead of depending on spectacle and special effects to create excitement, the new lower-budget films tried to develop thought-provoking or perverse stories reflecting the psychological and social problems besetting returning war veterans and others adapting to postwar life.
On November 24,a group of eight screenwriters and two directors, later known as the Hollywood Tenwere sentenced to serve up to a year in prison for refusing to testify. That evening the members of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, which included the leading studio heads, published what became known as the Waldorf Declaration, in which they fired the members of the Hollywood Ten and expressed their support of HUAC.
The studios, afraid to antagonize already shrinking audiences, then initiated an unofficial policy of blacklistingrefusing to employ any person even suspected of having communist associations. Hundreds of people were fired from the industry, and many creative artists were never able to work in Hollywood again.
Throughout the blacklisting era, filmmakers refrained from making any but the most conservative motion pictures; controversial topics or new ideas were carefully avoided. The threat of television The film industry believed that the greatest threat to its continued success was posed by television, especially in light of the Paramount decrees. In the —53 season, the ability to produce multiple-track stereophonic sound joined this list.
In the late s, fewer than 12 percent of Hollywood features were produced in colour, primarily because of the expense of three-strip Technicolor filming.
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By more than 50 percent of American features were made in colour, and the figure reached 94 percent by The aspect ratio the ratio of width to height of the projected motion-picture image had been standardized at 1. For both optical and architectural reasons this change in size usually meant increased width, not increased height. Early experiments with multiple-camera wide-screen Cineramaand stereoscopic 3-D Natural Visionprovoked audience interest, but it was an anamorphic process called CinemaScope that prompted the wide-screen revolution.
By the end ofevery Hollywood studio but Paramount had leased a version of the process from Fox Paramount adopted a nonanamorphic process called VistaVision that exposed double-frame images by running film through special cameras and projectors horizontally rather than verticallyand many studios were experimenting with wide-gauge film systems e. Like the coming of sound, the conversion to wide-screen formats produced an initial regression as filmmakers learned how to compose and edit their images for the new elongated frame.
Sound had promoted the rise of aurally intensive genres such as the musical and the gangster film, and the wide-screen format similarly created a bias in favour of visually spectacular subjects and epic scale. Given the political paranoia of the times, few subjects could be treated seriously, and the studios concentrated on presenting traditional genre fare—westerns, musicals, comedies, and blockbusters—suitable for wide-screen treatment.
Only a director like Hitchcockwhose style was oblique and imagist, could prosper in such a climate.
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Because they could no longer dominate the exhibition sector, they faced serious competition for the first time from independent and foreign filmmakers. The minor companies, however, owned modest studio facilities and had lost nothing by the Paramount decrees because they controlled no theatres. They were thus able to prosper during this era, eventually becoming major companies themselves in the s. Although it had roots in both Soviet expressive realism and French poetic realism, Neorealism was decidedly national in focus, taking as its subject the day-to-day reality of a country traumatized by political upheaval and war.
The film featured both professional and nonprofessional actors and focused on ordinary people caught up in contemporary events.
Its documentary texture, postrecorded sound track, and improvisational quality became the hallmark of the Neorealist movement. In many respects it is more exemplary of the movement than Ossessione, and it is widely regarded as a masterpiece.
It also heralded the practices of shooting on location using natural lighting and postsynchronizing sound that later became standard in the film industry. Federico Fellini had worked as a scriptwriter for Rossellini before directing in the s an impressive series of films whose form was Neorealist but whose content was allegorical I vitelloni [The Loafers], ; La strada [The Road], ; Le notti di Cabiria [Nights of Cabiria], Accordingly, his first films were Neorealist documentary shorts Gente del Po [People of the Po],but during the s he turned increasingly to an examination of the Italian bourgeoisie in such films as Cronaca di un amore ; Story of a Love AffairLa signora senza camelie ; Camille Without Camelliasand Le amiche ; The Girlfriendsand in the early s Antonioni produced a trilogy on the malaise of the middle class that made him internationally famous.
Antonioni then began to use colour expressionistically in Deserto rosso ; Red Desert and Blow-Up to convey alienation and abstraction from human feeling, and all of his later works in some way concerned the breakdown of personal relationships Zabriskie Point, ; Identificazione di una donna [Identification of a Woman], and of identity itself Professione: Combat The start of the Hayfield Battle in Fury.
Giles Keyte Director David Ayer has spoken of the lengths gone to for maximum verisimilitude, with computer graphics eschewed save for the laser beams used to show tracer fire. Though Oxfordshire doubles for Germany in terms of location, Ayer was able to use a real German Tiger tank, the only working model in the world, captured from the Germans on the secret orders of Winston Churchill and currently housed at Bovington.
For Bill, the scene in which this Tiger tank takes on three US counterparts was the most realistic part of the film. Fury accurately portrays how superior the German tanks were. A Sherman provided you with protection against most enemy fire but against a Tiger it could easily become your coffin.
I remember a very near miss where an eight cm shell from a Tiger tank went within inches of our turret and we decided not to stay around too long after that.
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In open combat we never had a chance. So, like in Fury, we always had to be one step ahead. It was only because we could call up air strikes and had many more tanks than the Germans that we eventually won. The tank The Tiger Tank in Fury. Giles Keyte As the film makes clear, a Sherman tank was a lightweight in comparison to a Tiger.
A Tiger also had 3.
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In response to an attack from a Tiger, Wardaddy yells: But before it does, a lot more people gotta die. Fury shows just how vulnerable you were fighting in a Sherman tank. There is a lot of blood and gore in the film but nothing can really come close to the true horrors of tank warfare. I saw people being blown up and burnt alive.Australia vs United States (USA) - Who Would Win? Military Comparison
That will stay with me forever. Body count Link to video: Sony The corpses certainly mount up in Fury, particularly in the final scene.
Fighting racism at home and abroad By deploying troops abroad as warriors for and emissaries of American democracy, the military literally exported the African-American freedom struggle.
The military brass, disproportionately dominated by white Southern officers, refused. They argued that such a step would undermine military efficiency and negatively impact the morale of white soldiers.
In an integrated military, black officers or NCOs might also end up commanding white troops. Such a challenge to the Jim Crow racial order based on white supremacy was seen as unacceptable. African-Americans were allowed to train as pilots in the segregated Tuskeegee Airmen.
The 92nd Buffalo Soldiers and 93rd Blue Helmets all-black divisions were activated and sent abroad under the command of white officers. Despite these concessions, 90 percent of black troops were forced to serve in labor and supply units, rather than the more prestigious combat units. Except for a few short weeks during the Battle of the Bulge in the winter of when commanders were desperate for manpower, all U. Even the blood banks were segregated. It was also not lost on the black soldiers.
Library of Congress Post-Nazi Germany was hardly a country free of racism.