To evaluate the effect of menopausal status and body mass index (BMI) on circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations and investigate whether there is an. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Feb;63(2) Relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body fat distribution. Park KG(1), Park . The Relationships of Leptin, Adiponectin Levels and Paraoxonase Activity with Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Females Treated with Psychiatric.
Abdominal obesity is strongly related to disorders involving glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism. Among these, leptin and adiponectin have significant roles in insulin sensitivity.
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Insulin and leptin play roles in the regulation of body weight. In one study, 21 the levels of these hormones were investigated in patients treated with various antipsychotics, and patients receiving olanzapine had higher insulin levels than those treated with conventional antipsychotics despite similar BMI values.
This situation was attributed to possible effects of olanzapine on insulin secretion. Leptin regulation also changes during olanzapine and clozapine therapy, and the effects of these drugs on insulin and leptin levels were proposed to be associated with the induction of weight gain.
The significantly higher hepatic enzyme levels in the study group may have been due not only to disorders caused by obesity but also to drug therapy.
This indicates that psychotropic drugs may increase the risk of developing of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders by affecting hormones related to body weight. Weight gain caused by psychotropic drug treatment has been proposed to be associated with increased leptin levels.
During acute treatment of schizophrenia with clozapine, serum leptin increased two-fold within 2 weeks of initiating therapy and remained high for the first 10 weeks of treatment. Body weight increased by a mean of 4. On the other hand, patients who were treated with haloperidol or did not receive psychotropic drugs gained no weight and had stable leptin levels.
It has therefore been stressed that an initial evaluation and follow-up to assess metabolic syndrome-related risks should be a part of the clinical treatment for schizophrenic patients. In a longitudinal study, 25 a mean body weight increase of 3. Within the first 8 weeks of lithium monotherapy, body weights of eight female and seven male inpatients increased by a mean of 5.
On the other hand, plasma leptin levels did not change in any of the groups. The increases in these parameters were moderate with quetiapine and minimal with risperidone.
Also, leptin levels correlated positively with BMI and triglyceride levels.
In our study group, most patients were depressed and receiving antidepressant pharmacotherapy The period of treatment and the initial body weights may affect the results of the study. In our study, the leptin level in both groups was positively correlated with body weight, BMI and waist and hip measurements. This result is compatible with previous studies and was expected.
The blood concentrations of adiponectin, which increases insulin sensitivity, are reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In humans, adiponectin levels are known to correlate negatively with body weight, body fat mass and insulin levels. In addition to its association with lipid and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, adiponectin also acts as an anti-inflammatory agent 32930 and might contribute to the development of obesity-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and coronary heart disease.
Therefore, several parameters were re-evaluated following adjustment of age and BMI. Following adjustment to an age of Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, body composition, and glucose consumption were previously investigated in adult females with different ages and obesity levels.
Adiponectin levels were also positively correlated with glucose consumption. These results further suggest the association of adiponectin with cardiovascular diseases. Hypoadiponectinemia has been reported to be more strongly correlated than other inflammatory indicators with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
The neuroendocrine system is activated by stress, resulting in increased secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone and glucagon.
In our study, the cortisol levels appeared higher in the group receiving psychiatric drugs, although this difference was not statistically significant Table 2.
Relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body fat distribution.
Stress-induced activation of the neuroendocrine system and the resulting effects on carbohydrate metabolism may have been responsible for the significantly higher glucose, insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR levels in patients who were receiving drugs. These results suggest that psychiatric disorders and their corresponding treatments render patients more susceptible to type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Obesity is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and also indirectly increases the risk of coronary artery disease via its associations with insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hypertension Visceral adiposity, which describes fat deposition within the abdomen, is highly correlated with an unfavorable coronary risk profile.
Therefore, measurements of waist circumference and body fat have become increasingly popular in clinics. A waist circumference of greater than 80 cm in females indicates increased risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Hip circumference and body fat percentage were also significance higher in the group receiving drugs Table 1. While the body fat ratio of controls was in accord with the level expected according to BMI, 39 it was above the expected value in the group receiving psychiatric drugs.
The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus indicates a particularly high risk for cardiovascular diseases. LEP is mainly responsible for the regulation of food intake [ 9 ]; its higher serum levels inhibit hunger, increase energy expenditure by raising body temperature, while increasing fatty acid oxidation in the liver and skeletal muscle [ 14 ].
LEP has also been shown to be involved in immunological processes, hematopoiesis and probably in pathological processes, autoimmune diseases [ 1516 ], angiogenesis, hemostasis and wound healing [ 1718 ]. It is possible that ADPN and LEP may be the risk markers for fat-induced dyslipidemia or insulin resistance, with a risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, despite a vast body of research, the role of LEP and ADPN in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases still raises a lot of controversies, for example due to discrepancies between clinical and animal research findings [ 192021 ].
A recent study has shown a negative correlation of serum adiponectin level and a positive correlation of serum leptin level with visceral fat area in adults and these correlations are more significant compared to BMI ones. Leptin and adiponectin, among various adipocyte-derived cytokines, are thought to be involved in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis.
Additionally, the evaluation of the leptin: In estimating the body composition, we included the percentage of fat components including subcutaneous and visceral fat or non-fat components, and their segmental distribution. An inclusion criterion for participation in the study was: In addition, the following parameters were determined in the trunk: We also determined the proportion of the trunk and limb components in the total body mass of subjects under study.
Additionally, we calculated the ratio of subcutaneous to visceral fat in the whole body and trunk SFM: Electrodes in this method are placed as a tetrapolar system with the opposite arrangement, four electrodes built into the hand brackets on the apparatus two electrodes per handand four on a measuring platform two per foot.
The study was conducted in accordance with the standards for the measurement procedure, at the same time of the day for all subjects, in the morning on an empty stomach. The average of three readings was used as the representative examination value. The measurement was performed under controlled conditions in a quiet room.
Relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body fat distribution.
Biochemical Parameters of Venous Blood Venous blood was collected from each of the volunteers, after overnight fasting, between 7. Data recording All the participants included in the study were delivered a questionnaire to record detailed clinical history and physical examination. Anthropometric measurements After giving informed consent, anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were taken. Waist circumference was measured halfway between the last rib and the iliac crest with full abdominal relaxation.
Height was measured to the nearest 0. Body weight was measured to the nearest 0. Blood pressure was measured using standard mercury sphygmomanometer, with the participant in sitting position for at least 10 min. Blood collection Fasting blood samples 8 ml from the participants were collected by venipuncture and collected in plain and EDTA vacutainers.
Biochemical investigations Serum glucose and cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteins HDLand low-density lipoproteins LDL were estimated using commercially available kits Coral Clinical Systems, Goa, India.
Independent sample t-test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were used to compare means of different parameters. Results In the study, 50 diabetics case and 50 nondiabetic control people in the age bracket of 40—60 years were included in the study.Adipose tissue, adiponectin, leptin and ASP